Coordenadas : 32 ° N 53 ° E / 32°N 53°E
República Islâmica do Irã
جمهوری اسلامی ایران ( Persa )
Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān
Hino: سرود ملی جمهوری اسلامی ایران
Sorud-e Melli-ye Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān
( " Hino Nacional da República Islâmica do Irã " )
e a maior cidade
|Teerã 35 ° 41′N 51 ° 25′E|
/ 35.683°N 51.417°E
|Idiomas regionais reconhecidos|
Lista de línguas
Lista de etnias
|Governo||República islâmica presidencial teocrática unitária Khomeinista sob um líder supremo|
• Líder Supremo
• Presidente do Parlamento
|Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf|
• Chefe de Justiça
|Legislatura||Assembleia Consultiva Islâmica|
|História de estabelecimento|
• Império Mediano
|c. 678 AC|
• Império Aquemênida
• Império Parta
• Império Sassânida
|224 DC |
• Dinastia Buyid
• Dinastia Safavid
• Dinastia Afsharid
• Dinastia Zand
• Dinastia Qajar
• Dinastia Pahlavi
|15 de dezembro de 1925|
• Revolução Islâmica
|11 de fevereiro de 1979|
• Constituição atual
|3 de dezembro de 1979|
• Última alteração
|28 de julho de 1989|
|1.648.195 km 2 (636.372 mi quadradas) ( 17º )|
• Água (%)
|1,63 (a partir de 2015) |
• estimativa de 2019
|83.183.741  ( 17º )|
|48 / km 2 (124,3 / sq mi) ( 162º )|
|PIB ( PPP )||Estimativa para 2020|
|$ 1,007 trilhão  ( 18º )|
• per capita
|$ 11.963  ( 66º )|
|PIB (nominal)||Estimativa para 2020|
|$ 611 bilhões  ( 21º )|
• per capita
|$ 7.257  ( 78º )|
|Gini (2017)|| 40,8  |
|HDI (2019)|| 0,783  |
alto · 70º
|Moeda||Rial iraniano ( ریال ) ( IRR )|
|Fuso horário||UTC +3: 30 ( IRST )|
• Verão ( DST )
|UTC +4: 30 (IRDT)|
|Formato de data||aaaa / mm / dd ( SH )|
|Lado de condução||direito|
|Código de chamada||+98|
|Código ISO 3166||IR|
Irã ( persa : ایران Irã [ʔiːɾɒːn] ( ouvir ) ), também chamado de Pérsia  e oficialmente a República Islâmica do Irã ( persa : جمهوری اسلامی ایران Jomhuri-ye Eslami-ye Irã ( ouvir ) [dʒomhuːˌɾije eslɒːˌmije ʔiːˈɾɒn] ), é um país da Ásia Ocidental . Faz fronteira a noroeste com a Armênia e o Azerbaijão , [a] ao norte com o Mar Cáspio , a nordeste com o Turcomenistão , a leste com o Afeganistão , a sudeste com o Paquistão , ao sul com o Golfo Pérsico e o Golfo de Omã , e a oeste pela Turquia e Iraque . O Irã cobre uma área de 1.648.195 km 2 (636.372 MI quadrado), com uma população de 83 milhões. É o segundo maior país do Oriente Médio, e sua capital e maior cidade é Teerã .
O Irã é o lar de uma das civilizações mais antigas do mundo,   começando com a formação dos reinos elamitas no quarto milênio aC. Foi unificado pela primeira vez pelos medos iranianos no século 7 aC,  e atingiu seu auge territorial no século 6 aC, quando Ciro, o Grande fundou o Império Aquemênida , que se tornou um dos maiores impérios da história e o primeiro do mundo superpotência.  O império caiu nas mãos de Alexandre o Grande no século IV aC e foi dividido em vários estados helenísticos. Uma rebelião iraniana estabeleceu o Império Parta no século III aC, que foi sucedido no século III dC pelo Império Sassânida , uma grande potência mundial durante os quatro séculos seguintes.   Os árabes muçulmanos conquistaram o império no século VII DC, o que levou à islamização do Irã , e posteriormente se tornou um importante centro da cultura islâmica e do aprendizado, com sua arte, literatura, filosofia e arquitetura se espalhando por todo o mundo o mundo muçulmano e além durante a Idade de Ouro islâmica . Nos dois séculos seguintes, uma série de dinastias muçulmanas nativas surgiram antes dos turcos seljúcidase os mongóis conquistaram a região. No século 15, os safávidas nativos restabeleceram um estado iraniano unificado e uma identidade nacional,  com a conversão do país ao islamismo xiita marcando um ponto de viragem na história iraniana e muçulmana .   Sob o reinado de Nader Shah no século 18, o Irã mais uma vez se tornou uma grande potência mundial,  [ página necessária ] embora no século 19 uma série de conflitos com o Império Russo tenha levado a um significativo território perdas.  O início do século 20 viu a Revolução Constitucional Persa . Os esforços para nacionalizar seu suprimento de combustível fóssil de empresas ocidentais levaram a um golpe anglo-americano em 1953 , que resultou em maior governo autocrático sob Mohammad Reza Pahlavi e crescente influência política ocidental.  Ele lançou uma série de reformas de longo alcance em 1963 .  Após a Revolução Iraniana , a atual República Islâmica foi estabelecida em 1979  por Ruhollah Khomeini, que se tornou o primeiro Líder Supremo do país .
O Governo do Irã é uma teocracia islâmica que inclui elementos de uma democracia presidencial , com a autoridade final investida em um "Líder Supremo" autocrático,  uma posição ocupada por Ali Khamenei desde 1989 após a morte de Khomeini. O governo iraniano é amplamente considerado autoritário e tem atraído críticas generalizadas por suas restrições significativas e abusos contra os direitos humanos e as liberdades civis,     incluindo várias repressões violentas de protestos em massa, eleições injustas , e direitos limitados para mulheres efilhos .
O Irã é uma potência regional e média , com uma localização geopoliticamente estratégica.  O Irã é membro fundador da ONU , ECO , OIC e OPEP . Possui grandes reservas de combustíveis fósseis - incluindo o segundo maior suprimento de gás natural do mundo e a terceira maior reserva comprovada de petróleo .  O rico legado cultural do país é refletido em parte por seus 22 locais do Patrimônio Mundial da UNESCO , o terceiro maior número na Ásia e o décimo maior no mundo. Historicamente um país multiétnico, o Irã continua sendo uma sociedade pluralista que compreende vários grupos étnicos, lingüísticos e religiosos , sendo os maiores persas , azeris , curdos , mazandaranis e lurs . 
O termo Irã deriva diretamente do persa médio Ērān , atestado pela primeira vez em uma inscrição do século III em Rustam Relief , com a inscrição parta que acompanha usando o termo Aryān , em referência aos iranianos .  O meio iraniano eran e Aryan são formas plurais oblíquas de gentílico substantivos ER- (persa médio) e ary- (parta), ambos derivados a partir de proto-iraniano * arya- (significando " ariana ", ou seja "dos iranianos" ),  reconhecido como um derivado de proto-Indo-europeu * ar-yo- , significando "aquele que monta (habilmente)".  Nas línguas iranianas , o gentílico é atestado como um auto-identificador, incluído em inscrições antigas e na literatura do Avesta ,  [b] e permanece também em outros nomes étnicos iranianos Alan ( Ossétia : Ир Ir ) e ferro ( Ирон ).  De acordo com a mitologia iraniana, o nome do país vem do nome de Iraj, um lendário príncipe e xá que foi morto por seus irmãos. 
Historicamente, o Irã tem sido referido como Pérsia pelo Ocidente ,  principalmente devido aos escritos de historiadores gregos que se referiram a todo o Irã como Persís ( grego antigo : Περσίς ; do persa antigo 𐎱𐎠𐎼𐎿 Pārsa ),  significando " terra dos persas ", enquanto Persis em si foi uma das províncias do Irã antigo que é hoje conhecido como Fars .  Como a interação mais extensa dos antigos gregostinha com qualquer estranho era com os persas, o termo persistiu, mesmo muito depois das Guerras Greco-Persas (499–449 AC).
Em 1935, Reza Shah solicitou à comunidade internacional que se referisse ao país por seu nome nativo, Irã , em Nowruz , em 21 de março de 1935; a partir de 22 de março daquele ano.   A oposição à mudança de nome levou à reversão da decisão em 1959, e o professor Ehsan Yarshater , editor da Encyclopædia Iranica , propagou um movimento para usar a Pérsia e o Irã alternadamente.  Hoje, tanto o Irã quanto a Pérsia são usados em contextos culturais, enquanto o Irã permanece insubstituível em contextos oficiais do estado. 
O uso histórico e cultural da palavra Irã não se restringe ao estado moderno propriamente dito.    " Grande Irã " ( Irānzamīn ou Irān e Bozorg )  refere-se aos territórios das zonas culturais e linguísticas iranianas. Além do Irã moderno, inclui partes do Cáucaso , Anatólia , Mesopotâmia , Afeganistão e Ásia Central .  [ página necessária ]
A pronúncia persa do Irã é[ʔiːˈɾɒːn] . Comum Commonwealth Inglês pronúncias de Irã estão listados no Dicionário de Inglês Oxford como / ɪ r ɑː n / e / ɪ r æ n / ,  enquanto do inglês americano dicionários como Merriam-Webster s' fornecer as pronúncias que mapa para / ɪ r ɑː n , - r Æ n , aɪ r æ n /,ou o mesmo emUnabridged Dicionário Random House Webstercomo/ ɪ r æ n , ɪ r ɑː n , aɪ r æ n / . OsCambridge dicionáriolistas/ ɪ r ɑː n /como a pronúncia britânica e/ ɪ r æ n /como a pronúncia americano. Da mesma forma, com base em GlasgowO Dicionário Collins de Inglês fornece aspronúncias do Inglês Inglês e do Inglês Americano. O guia de pronúncia da voz da América também fornece / ɪ r ɑː n / . 
A pronúncia Inglês Americano / aɪ r æ n / olho- RAN pode ser ouvido na mídia dos EUA. Max Fisher em The Washington Post  prescrito / i r ɑː n / para Irão , enquanto que proíbem / aɪ r Æ n / . O American Heritage Dictionary of English Language , na cédula de uso de 2014 do dicionário, abordou o tópico das pronúncias do Irã e do Iraque.  De acordo com esta pesquisa, as pronúncias/ Ɪ r ɑː n / e / ɪ r Æ n / foram consideradas quase igualmente aceitável, enquanto / ɪ r ɑː n / foi preferido pela maioria dos membros do painel que participaram no escrutínio. No que diz respeito ao / aɪ r Æ n / pronúncia, mais de 70% dos membros do painel considerado inaceitável. Entre as razões dadas por aqueles participantes que foram que / aɪ r Æ n /tem "conotações hawkish" e soa "mais raivoso", "xenófobo", "ignorante" e "não ... cosmopolita". A / aɪ r æ n / pronúncia permanece normal e aceitável, refletida na entrada para o Irã no American Heritage Dictionary em si, bem como em cada uma das outras grandes dicionários de Inglês Americano.
Os primeiros artefatos arqueológicos atestados no Irã, como os escavados em Kashafrud e Ganj Par no norte do Irã, confirmam a presença humana no Irã desde o Paleolítico Inferior .  Artefatos neandertais do Irã do Paleolítico Médio foram encontrados principalmente na região de Zagros , em locais como Warwasi e Yafteh .   [ página necessária ] Do 10º ao sétimo milênio aC, as primeiras comunidades agrícolas começaram a florescer na região de Zagros, no oeste do Irã, incluindo Chogha Golan,   Chogha Bonut ,   e Chogha Mish .   [ página necessária ] 
A ocupação de aldeias agrupadas na área de Susa , conforme determinado por datação por radiocarbono , varia de 4395-3955 a 3680-3490 AC.  Existem dezenas de sítios pré-históricos em todo o planalto iraniano, apontando para a existência de culturas antigas e assentamentos urbanos no quarto milênio AC.    Durante a Idade do Bronze , o território do atual Irã foi o lar de várias civilizações, incluindo Elam , Jiroft e Zayanderud . Elam, a mais proeminente dessas civilizações, desenvolveu-se no sudoeste ao lado das da Mesopotâmia, e continuou sua existência até o surgimento dos impérios iranianos. O advento da escrita em Elam foi paralelo à Suméria , e o cuneiforme elamita foi desenvolvido desde o terceiro milênio aC. 
Do século 34 ao século 20 aC, o noroeste do Irã fez parte da cultura Kura-Araxes , que se estendeu até os vizinhos Cáucaso e Anatólia . Desde o primeiro segundo milênio aC, os assírios se estabeleceram em áreas do oeste do Irã e incorporaram a região a seus territórios.
No segundo milênio aC, os antigos povos iranianos chegaram ao que hoje é o Irã vindos da estepe da Eurásia ,  rivalizando com os colonos nativos da região.   À medida que os iranianos se dispersaram na área mais ampla do Grande Irã e além, as fronteiras do Irã moderno foram dominadas pelas tribos medas , persas e partas .
Do final do século 10 ao final do século 7 aC, os povos iranianos, juntamente com os reinos "pré-iranianos", caíram sob o domínio do Império Assírio , baseado no norte da Mesopotâmia .  [ página necessária ] Sob o rei Ciáxares , os medos e persas firmaram uma aliança com o governante babilônico Nabopolassar , bem como com os companheiros citas e cimérios iranianos , e juntos atacaram o Império Assírio. A guerra civil devastou o Império Assírio entre 616 e 605 aC, libertando assim seus respectivos povos de três séculos de domínio assírio. A unificação das tribos medianas sob o rei Deioces em 728 aC levou à fundação do Império Medo que, por volta de 612 aC, controlava quase todo o território do atual Irã e da Anatólia oriental .  Isso marcou o fim do Reino de Urartu também, que foi posteriormente conquistado e dissolvido.  
Em 550 aC, Ciro , o Grande , filho de Mandane e Cambises I , assumiu o Império Medo e fundou o Império Aquemênida unificando outras cidades-estado. A conquista da Mídia foi resultado do que é chamado de Revolta Persa . A confusão foi inicialmente desencadeada pelas ações do governante meda Astíages e rapidamente se espalhou para outras províncias, à medida que se aliaram aos persas. As conquistas posteriores sob Ciro e seus sucessores expandiram o império para incluir Lídia , Babilônia , Egito , partes dos Bálcãs e Europa Orientalpropriamente dita, bem como as terras a oeste dos rios Indo e Oxus .
539 AC foi o ano em que as forças persas derrotaram o exército babilônico em Opis e marcou o fim de cerca de quatro séculos de dominação mesopotâmica da região com a conquista do Império Neo-Babilônico . Ciro entrou na Babilônia e se apresentou como um monarca tradicional da Mesopotâmia. A arte e a iconografia aquemênida subsequentes refletem a influência da nova realidade política na Mesopotâmia.
Em sua maior extensão, o Império Aquemênida incluía territórios do atual Irã, República do Azerbaijão ( Arrã e Shirvan ), Armênia , Geórgia , Turquia ( Anatólia ), grande parte das regiões costeiras do Mar Negro , nordeste da Grécia e sul da Bulgária ( Trácia ) , norte da Grécia e norte da Macedônia ( Paeônia e Macedônia ), Iraque , Síria , Líbano , Jordânia , Israele os territórios palestinos , todos centros populacionais significativos do antigo Egito, no extremo oeste da Líbia , Kuwait , norte da Arábia Saudita , partes dos Emirados Árabes Unidos e Omã , Paquistão , Afeganistão e grande parte da Ásia Central , tornando-o o maior império do mundo ainda tinha visto. 
Estima-se que em 480 aC, 50 milhões de pessoas viviam no Império Aquemênida.   O império em seu auge governou mais de 44% da população mundial, o maior número desse tipo em qualquer império na história. 
O Império Aquemênida é conhecido pela libertação dos exilados judeus na Babilônia ,  construindo infraestruturas como a Estrada Real e o Chapar (serviço postal), e o uso de uma língua oficial , o aramaico imperial , em todos os seus territórios.  O império teve uma administração burocrática centralizada sob o imperador, um grande exército profissional e serviços civis, inspirando desenvolvimentos semelhantes em impérios posteriores.  
O conflito eventual nas fronteiras ocidentais começou com a Revolta Jônica , que eclodiu nas Guerras Greco-Persas e continuou durante a primeira metade do século V aC, e terminou com a retirada dos aquemênidas de todos os territórios dos Bálcãs e do Oriente Europa propriamente dita. 
Em 334 aC, Alexandre o Grande invadiu o Império Aquemênida, derrotando o último imperador aquemênida, Dario III , na Batalha de Issus . Após a morte prematura de Alexandre, o Irã ficou sob o controle do Império Helenístico Selêucida . Em meados do século II aC, o Império Parta cresceu para se tornar a principal potência no Irã, e a arquirrivalidade geopolítica de um século entre os romanos e os partas começou, culminando nas Guerras Romano-Pártias . O Império Parta continuou como uma monarquia feudal por quase cinco séculos, até 224 EC, quando foi sucedido pelo Império Sassânida . Junto com seu arquirrival vizinho, o Romano - Bizantino , eles constituíram as duas potências mais dominantes do mundo na época, por mais de quatro séculos.  
Os sassânidas estabeleceram um império dentro das fronteiras alcançadas pelos aquemênidas, com capital em Ctesifonte . A antiguidade tardia é considerada um dos períodos mais influentes do Irã, pois sob os sassânidas sua influência alcançou a cultura da Roma antiga (e através dela até a Europa Ocidental ),   África ,  China e Índia ,  e desempenhou um papel proeminente na formação da arte medieval da Europa e da Ásia . 
A maior parte da era do Império Sassânida foi ofuscada pelas Guerras Romano-Persas , que ocorreram nas fronteiras ocidentais da Anatólia, Cáucaso Ocidental , Mesopotâmia e Levante , por mais de 700 anos. Essas guerras acabaram exaurindo romanos e sassânidas e levaram à derrota de ambos pela invasão muçulmana. [ citação necessária ]
Ao longo das eras aquemênida, parta e sassânida, vários ramos das dinastias iranianas estabeleceram ramos homônimos na Anatólia e no Cáucaso, incluindo o Reino do Pôntico , os Mihranidas e as dinastias arsácidas da Armênia , Península Ibérica ( Geórgia ) e Albânia do Cáucaso (presente -dia República do Azerbaijão e do sul do Daguestão ). [ citação necessária ]
As prolongadas guerras bizantino-sassânidas , principalmente a guerra climática de 602-628 , bem como o conflito social dentro do Império Sassânida , abriram caminho para uma invasão árabe do Irã no século VII.   O império foi inicialmente derrotado pelo califado Rashidun , que foi sucedido pelo califado omíada , seguido pelo califado abássida . Seguiu -se um processo prolongado e gradual de islamização imposta pelo estado , que teve como alvo a então maioria zoroastriana do Irã e incluiu perseguição religiosa,    demolição de bibliotecas e templos de incêndio,  uma penalidade fiscal especial (" jizya "),   e mudança de idioma.  
Em 750, os abássidas derrubaram os omíadas.  Árabes muçulmanos e persas de todos os estratos constituíram o exército rebelde, que foi unido pelo convertido muçulmano persa, Abu Muslim .    Em sua luta pelo poder, a sociedade em seus tempos gradualmente se tornou cosmopolita e a velha simplicidade árabe e dignidade aristocrática, porte e prestígio foram perdidos. Persas e turcos começaram a substituir os árabes na maioria dos campos. A fusão da nobreza árabe com as raças subjugadas, a prática da poligamia e do concubinato, criou um amálgama social em que as lealdades se tornaram incertas e uma hierarquia de funcionários emergiu, uma burocracia primeiro persa e depois turca que diminuiu o prestígio e o poder dos Abássidas para sempre . 
Após dois séculos de domínio árabe, reinos-incluindo o iraniano semi-independentes e independentes Tahirids , Saffarids , Samanids e Buyids -began a aparecer nas franjas do declínio califado abássida. [ citação necessária ]
O florescimento da literatura , filosofia , matemática , medicina , astronomia e arte do Irã se tornaram os principais elementos na formação de uma nova era para a civilização iraniana, durante um período conhecido como Idade de Ouro Islâmica .   A Idade de Ouro islâmica atingiu seu auge nos séculos 10 e 11, durante os quais o Irã foi o principal teatro de atividades científicas. 
O renascimento cultural que começou no período abássida levou ao ressurgimento da identidade nacional iraniana ; assim, as tentativas de arabização nunca tiveram sucesso no Irã. [ carece de fontes? ] O movimento Shu'ubiyya se tornou um catalisador para os iranianos recuperarem a independência em suas relações com os invasores árabes.  O efeito mais notável deste movimento foi a continuação da língua persa atestada nas obras do poeta épico Ferdowsi , agora considerada a figura mais proeminente da literatura iraniana. [ citação necessária ]
O século 10 viu uma migração em massa de tribos turcas da Ásia Central para o planalto iraniano.  Tribos turcas foram usadas pela primeira vez no exército abássida como mamelucos (guerreiros escravos), substituindo elementos iranianos e árabes dentro do exército.  Como resultado, os mamelucos ganharam um poder político significativo. Em 999, grandes porções do Irã ficaram brevemente sob o domínio dos Ghaznavidas , cujos governantes eram de origem turca mameluca, e por mais tempo subseqüentemente sob os impérios Seljuk e Khwarezmian .  Os seljúcidas posteriormente deram origem ao sultanato de Rumna Anatólia, levando consigo sua identidade completamente persianizada.   O resultado da adoção e patrocínio da cultura persa pelos governantes turcos foi o desenvolvimento de uma tradição turco-persa distinta .
De 1219 a 1221, sob o Império Khwarazmian, o Irã sofreu uma invasão devastadora pelo exército do Império Mongol de Genghis Khan . De acordo com Steven R. Ward, "a violência e depredações mongóis mataram até três quartos da população do planalto iraniano, possivelmente 10 a 15 milhões de pessoas. Alguns historiadores estimam que a população do Irã não atingiu novamente seus níveis pré-mongóis até meados do século 20 ". 
Após a fratura do Império Mongol em 1256, Hulagu Khan , neto de Genghis Khan, estabeleceu o Ilkhanate no Irã. Em 1370, outro conquistador, Timur , seguiu o exemplo de Hulagu, estabelecendo o Império Timúrida que durou mais 156 anos. Em 1387, Timur ordenou o massacre completo de Isfahan , supostamente matando 70.000 cidadãos.  Os ilkhans e os timúridas logo passaram a adotar as formas e costumes dos iranianos, cercando-se de uma cultura distintamente iraniana. 
Período moderno inicial
Por volta de 1500, Ismail I de Ardabil estabeleceu o Império Safávida ,  com sua capital em Tabriz .  Começando com o Azerbaijão , ele posteriormente estendeu sua autoridade sobre todos os territórios iranianos e estabeleceu uma hegemonia iraniana intermitente sobre as vastas regiões relativas, reafirmando a identidade iraniana em grandes partes do Grande Irã .  O Irã era predominantemente sunita ,  mas Ismail instigou uma conversão forçada ao ramo xiita do Islã, espalhando-se pelos territórios safávidas no Cáucaso , Irã, Anatólia e Mesopotâmia . Como resultado, o Irã moderno é a única nação xiita oficial do mundo, com maioria absoluta no Irã e na República do Azerbaijão , tendo ali o primeiro e o segundo maior número de habitantes xiitas por porcentagem da população no mundo .   Enquanto isso, a rivalidade geopolítica e ideológica de séculos entre o Irã safávida e o Império Otomano vizinho levou a várias guerras otomano-iranianas . 
A era safávida atingiu o auge no reinado de Abbas I (1587-1629),   superando seus arquirrivais turcos em força e tornando o Irã um centro de ciência e arte líder na Eurásia ocidental. A era safávida viu o início da integração em massa das populações caucasianas em novas camadas da sociedade do Irã, bem como o reassentamento em massa deles no interior do Irã, desempenhando um papel central na história do Irã por séculos em diante. Após um declínio gradual no final de 1600 e início de 1700, que foi causado por conflitos internos, as guerras contínuas com os otomanos e a interferência estrangeira (principalmente a interferência russa), o governo safávida foi encerrado pelos rebeldes pashtunsque sitiou Isfahan e derrotou o Sultão Husayn em 1722.
Em 1729, Nader Shah , um chefe e gênio militar de Khorasan , expulsou com sucesso e conquistou os invasores pashtuns. Posteriormente, ele recuperou os territórios do Cáucaso anexados, que foram divididos entre as autoridades otomanas e russas pelo caos em curso no Irã. Durante o reinado de Nader Shah, o Irã atingiu sua maior extensão desde o Império Sassânida, restabelecendo a hegemonia iraniana em todo o Cáucaso , bem como em outras partes importantes do oeste e da Ásia central , e possuindo brevemente o que foi indiscutivelmente o império mais poderoso em A Hora. 
Nader Shah invadiu a Índia e saqueou a longínqua Delhi no final da década de 1730. Sua expansão territorial, assim como seus sucessos militares, entraram em declínio após as campanhas finais no norte do Cáucaso contra o então revoltado Lezgins . O assassinato de Nader Shah desencadeou um breve período de guerra civil e turbulência, após o qual Karim Khan da dinastia Zand assumiu o poder em 1750, trazendo um período de relativa paz e prosperidade. 
Em comparação com suas dinastias anteriores, o alcance geopolítico da dinastia Zand era limitado. Muitos dos territórios iranianos no Cáucaso ganharam autonomia de fato e eram governados localmente por vários canatos do Cáucaso . No entanto, apesar do autogoverno, todos eles permaneceram súditos e vassalos do rei Zand.  Outra guerra civil ocorreu após a morte de Karim Khan em 1779, da qual Agha Mohammad Khan emergiu, fundando a dinastia Qajar em 1794.
Em 1795, após a desobediência dos súditos georgianos e sua aliança com os russos , os Qajars capturaram Tbilisi pela Batalha de Krtsanisi e expulsaram os russos de todo o Cáucaso, restabelecendo a suserania iraniana sobre a região.
As guerras russo-iranianas de 1804-1813 e 1826-1828 resultaram em grandes perdas territoriais irrevogáveis para o Irã no Cáucaso, abrangendo toda a Transcaucásia e o Daguestão , o que fez parte do próprio conceito de Irã por séculos,  e, portanto, substancial ganhos para o vizinho Império Russo.
Como resultado das guerras russo-iranianas do século 19, os russos assumiram o controle do Cáucaso, e o Irã perdeu irrevogavelmente o controle de seus territórios integrais na região (incluindo o Daguestão, a Geórgia , a Armênia e a República do Azerbaijão dos dias modernos ), que foi confirmado pelos tratados de Gulistan e Turkmenchay .   A área ao norte do rio Aras , entre a qual a contemporânea República do Azerbaijão, o leste da Geórgia, o Daguestão e a Armênia estão localizados, era território iraniano até que foram ocupados pela Rússia no decorrer do século XIX.      
Conforme o Irã encolheu, muitos muçulmanos da Transcaucásia e do Cáucaso do Norte mudaram-se para o Irã,   especialmente até o rescaldo do Genocídio Circassiano ,  e nas décadas seguintes, enquanto os armênios do Irã foram encorajados a se estabelecer nos territórios russos recém-incorporados ,    causando mudanças demográficas significativas.
Cerca de 1,5 milhão de pessoas - 20 a 25% da população do Irã - morreram como resultado da Grande Fome de 1870-1871 . 
Entre 1872 e 1905, uma série de protestos ocorreu em resposta à venda de concessões a estrangeiros pelos monarcas Qajar Naser-ed-Din e Mozaffar-ed-Din , e levou à Revolução Constitucional em 1905. A primeira constituição iraniana e a O primeiro parlamento nacional do Irã foi fundado em 1906, durante a revolução em curso. A Constituição incluiu o reconhecimento oficial das três minorias religiosas do Irã, a saber, cristãos , judeus e zoroastrianos ,  que permaneceu uma base na legislação do Irã desde então. A luta relacionada ao movimento constitucional foi seguida peloTriunfo de Teerã em 1909, quando Mohammad Ali Shah foi derrotado e forçado a abdicar. Sob o pretexto de restaurar a ordem, os russos ocuparam o norte do Irã em 1911 e mantiveram uma presença militar na região nos anos seguintes. Mas isso não pôs fim às revoltas civis e logo foi seguido por Mirza Kuchik Khan 's Movimento selva tanto contra a monarquia Qajar e invasores estrangeiros.
Apesar da neutralidade do Irã durante a Primeira Guerra Mundial , os impérios Otomano , Russo e Britânico ocuparam o território do Irã ocidental e lutaram na Campanha Persa antes de retirarem totalmente suas forças em 1921. Pelo menos 2 milhões de civis persas morreram diretamente nos combates, perpetrou o Otomano genocídios anticristãos ou a fome induzida pela guerra de 1917-1919 . Um grande número de cristãos assírios iranianos e armênios iranianos , bem como os muçulmanos que tentaram protegê-los, foram vítimas de assassinatos em massa cometidos pelas tropas invasoras otomanas , principalmente dentro e ao redorKhoy , Maku , Salmas e Urmia .     
Além do governo de Agha Mohammad Khan, o governo Qajar é caracterizado como um século de desgoverno.  A incapacidade do governo Qajar do Irã de manter a soberania do país durante e imediatamente após a Primeira Guerra Mundial levou ao golpe de Estado persa dirigido pelos britânicos em 1921 e ao estabelecimento da dinastia Pahlavi por Reza Shah . Reza Shah tornou-se o novo primeiro-ministro do Irã e foi declarado o novo monarca em 1925.
Em meio à Segunda Guerra Mundial , em junho de 1941, a Alemanha nazista quebrou o Pacto Molotov-Ribbentrop e invadiu a União Soviética , o vizinho do norte do Irã. Os soviéticos rapidamente se aliaram aos países aliados e em julho e agosto de 1941 os britânicos exigiram que o governo iraniano expulsasse todos os alemães do Irã. Reza Shah se recusou a expulsar os alemães e em 25 de agosto de 1941, os britânicos e soviéticos lançaram uma invasão surpresa e o governo de Reza Shah se rendeu rapidamente.  O objetivo estratégico da invasão era garantir uma linha de abastecimento para a URSS (mais tarde chamada de Corredor Persa), proteger os campos de petróleo e a Refinaria de Abadan (da Anglo-Iranian Oil Company , de propriedade do Reino Unido ), impedir um avanço alemão através da Turquia ou da URSS nos campos de petróleo de Baku e limitar a influência alemã no Irã. Após a invasão, em 16 de setembro de 1941, Reza Shah abdicou e foi substituído por Mohammad Reza Pahlavi , seu filho de 21 anos.   
Durante o resto da Segunda Guerra Mundial, o Irã se tornou um importante canal para a ajuda britânica e americana à União Soviética e uma avenida através da qual mais de 120.000 refugiados poloneses e Forças Armadas polonesas fugiram do avanço do Eixo.  Na Conferência de Teerã de 1943 , os "Três Grandes" aliados - Joseph Stalin , Franklin D. Roosevelt e Winston Churchill - publicaram a Declaração de Teerã para garantir a independência pós-guerra e as fronteiras do Irã. No entanto, no final da guerra, as tropas soviéticas permaneceram no Irã e estabeleceram dois estados fantoches no noroeste do Irã, a saber, oGoverno Popular do Azerbaijão e República de Mahabad . Isso levou à crise do Irã de 1946 , um dos primeiros confrontos da Guerra Fria , que terminou depois que concessões de petróleo foram prometidas à URSS e as forças soviéticas se retiraram do Irã em maio de 1946. Os dois Estados fantoches foram logo derrubados e o petróleo concessões foram posteriormente revogadas.  
1951-1978: Mosaddegh, Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Em 1951, Mohammad Mosaddegh foi nomeado primeiro-ministro . Ele se tornou muito popular no Irã depois de nacionalizar a indústria de petróleo e as reservas de petróleo do país. Ele foi deposto no golpe de Estado iraniano de 1953 , uma operação secreta anglo-americana que marcou a primeira vez que os Estados Unidos participaram da derrubada de um governo estrangeiro durante a Guerra Fria . 
Após o golpe, o Xá tornou-se cada vez mais autocrático e sultanista , e o Irã entrou em uma fase de relações estreitas e polêmicas de décadas com os Estados Unidos e alguns outros governos estrangeiros.  Enquanto o Xá modernizou cada vez mais o Irã e alegou mantê-lo como um estado totalmente secular ,  prisões arbitrárias e torturas por sua polícia secreta, a SAVAK , foram usadas para esmagar todas as formas de oposição política. 
Ruhollah Khomeini , um clérigo muçulmano radical, [ carece de fontes? ] Tornou-se um crítico ativo da série de reformas de longo alcance do Xá conhecida como Revolução Branca . Khomeini denunciou publicamente o governo e foi detido e encarcerado por 18 meses. Após sua libertação em 1964, ele se recusou a se desculpar e acabou sendo enviado para o exílio.
Devido ao aumento dos preços do petróleo em 1973 , a economia do Irã foi inundada por divisas estrangeiras, o que causou inflação . Em 1974, a economia do Irã experimentava uma inflação de dois dígitos e, apesar dos muitos grandes projetos para modernizar o país, a corrupção era galopante e causava grande desperdício . Em 1975 e 1976, uma recessão econômica levou ao aumento do desemprego, especialmente entre milhões de jovens que migraram para as cidades do Irã em busca de empregos na construção durante os anos de expansão do início dos anos 1970. No final dos anos 1970, muitas dessas pessoas se opuseram ao regime do Xá e começaram a se organizar e se juntar aos protestos contra ele. 
Desde a Revolução Islâmica de 1979
A Revolução de 1979 , mais tarde conhecida como Revolução Islâmica ,    começou em janeiro de 1978 com as primeiras grandes manifestações contra o Xá.  Após um ano de greves e manifestações paralisando o país e sua economia, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi fugiu para os Estados Unidos e Ruhollah Khomeini voltou do exílio para Teerã em fevereiro de 1979, formando um novo governo.  Depois de realizar um referendo , o Irã tornou-se oficialmente uma república islâmica em abril de 1979.  Um segundo referendoem dezembro de 1979 aprovou uma constituição teocrática . 
Os levantes nacionais imediatos contra o novo governo começaram com a rebelião curda de 1979 e os levantes do Khuzistão , junto com os levantes no Sistão e Baluchistão e outras áreas. Nos anos seguintes, essas revoltas foram subjugadas de maneira violenta pelo novo governo islâmico. O novo governo começou a se purificar da oposição política não islâmica , bem como dos islâmicos que não eram considerados radicais o suficiente. Embora tanto nacionalistas quanto marxistas tenham se unido inicialmente aos islâmicos para derrubar o Xá, dezenas de milhares foram executados pelo novo regime depois disso. Muitos ex-ministros e funcionários do governo do xá, incluindo o ex-primeiro-ministro Amir-Abbas Hoveyda , foram executados após a ordem de Khomeini de expurgar o novo governo de todos os funcionários remanescentes ainda leais ao exilado xá.
Em 4 de novembro de 1979, um grupo de estudantes muçulmanos apreendeu a embaixada dos Estados Unidos e tomou a embaixada com 52 funcionários e cidadãos como reféns ,  depois que os Estados Unidos se recusaram a extraditar Mohammad Reza Pahlavi para o Irã, onde sua execução estava quase garantida. As tentativas da administração Jimmy Carter de negociar a libertação dos reféns e uma tentativa de resgate fracassada ajudaram a forçar Carter a deixar o cargo e a levar Ronald Reagan ao poder. No último dia de Jimmy Carter no cargo, os últimos reféns foram finalmente libertados como resultado dos Acordos de Argel. Mohammad Reza Pahlavi deixou os Estados Unidos e foi para o Egito, onde morreu de complicações de câncer poucos meses depois, em 27 de julho de 1980.
A Revolução Cultural teve início em 1980, com o fechamento inicial das universidades por três anos, a fim de realizar uma fiscalização e saneamento na política cultural do sistema de ensino e formação. 
Em 22 de setembro de 1980, o exército iraquiano invadiu a província iraniana do Khuzistão , no oeste , iniciando a Guerra Irã-Iraque . Embora as forças de Saddam Hussein tenham feito vários avanços iniciais, em meados de 1982, as forças iranianas conseguiram levar o exército iraquiano de volta ao Iraque. Em julho de 1982, com o Iraque colocado na defensiva, o regime do Irã tomou a decisão de invadir o Iraque e conduziu inúmeras ofensivas na tentativa de conquistar o território iraquiano e capturar cidades, como Basra. A guerra continuou até 1988, quando o exército iraquiano derrotou as forças iranianas dentro do Iraque e empurrou as tropas iranianas restantes de volta para a fronteira. Posteriormente, Khomeini aceitou uma trégua mediada pelas Nações Unidas. O total de vítimas iranianas na guerra foi estimado em 123.220–160.000 KIA , 60.711 MIA e 11.000–16.000 civis mortos .  
Após a Guerra Irã-Iraque, em 1989, Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani e seu governo se concentraram em uma política pragmática pró-negócios de reconstruir e fortalecer a economia sem fazer qualquer ruptura dramática com a ideologia da revolução. Em 1997, Rafsanjani foi sucedido pelo reformista moderado Mohammad Khatami , cujo governo tentou, sem sucesso, tornar o país mais livre e democrático. 
A eleição presidencial de 2005 trouxe o candidato populista conservador , Mahmoud Ahmadinejad , ao poder.  Na época da eleição presidencial iraniana de 2009 , o Ministério do Interior anunciou que o presidente em exercício Ahmadinejad tinha ganho 62,63% dos votos, enquanto Mir-Hossein Mousavi ficou em segundo lugar com 33,75%.   Os resultados das eleições foram amplamente contestados,   e resultaram em protestos generalizados , tanto dentro do Irã quanto nas principais cidades fora do país,   e a criação doMovimento Verde Iraniano .
Hassan Rouhani foi eleito presidente em 15 de junho de 2013, derrotando Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf e quatro outros candidatos.   A vitória eleitoral de Rouhani melhorou relativamente as relações do Irã com outros países. 
Os protestos iranianos de 2017–18 varreram o país contra o governo e seu líder supremo de longa data em resposta à situação econômica e política.  A escala de protestos em todo o país e o número de pessoas participantes foram significativos,  e foi formalmente confirmado que milhares de manifestantes foram presos.  Os protestos iranianos de 2019-20 começaram em 15 de novembro em Ahvaz , se espalhando por todo o país em poucas horas, depois que o governo anunciou aumentos no preço do combustível de até 300%.  Um desligamento total da Internet por uma semanaem todo o país marcou um dos apagões de Internet mais severos em qualquer país, e na repressão governamental mais sangrenta dos manifestantes na história da República Islâmica,  dezenas de milhares foram presos e centenas foram mortos em poucos dias, de acordo com vários observadores internacionais, incluindo a Amnistia Internacional . 
Em 3 de janeiro de 2020, o general da guarda revolucionária, Qasem Soleimani , foi assassinado pelos Estados Unidos no Iraque , o que aumentou consideravelmente as tensões existentes entre os dois países .  Três dias depois, o Corpo da Guarda Revolucionária Islâmica do Irã lançou um ataque de retaliação contra as forças dos EUA no Iraque e abateu o vôo 752 da Ukraine International Airlines , matando 176 civis e levando a protestos em todo o país . Uma investigação internacional levou o governo a admitir o abate do avião por um míssil terra-ar após três dias de negação, chamando-o de "erro humano". 
O Irã tem uma área de 1.648.195 km 2 (636.372 MI quadrado).  Encontra-se entre as latitudes 24 ° e 40 ° N , e longitudes 44 ° e 64 ° E . Faz fronteira a noroeste com a Armênia (35 km ou 22 milhas), o enclave azeri de Nakhchivan (179 km ou 111 milhas),  e a República do Azerbaijão (611 km ou 380 milhas); ao norte pelo Mar Cáspio ; a nordeste pelo Turcomenistão (992 km ou 616 milhas); a leste pelo Afeganistão (936 km ou 582 milhas) e Paquistão (909 km ou 565 milhas); ao sul peloGolfo Pérsico e Golfo de Omã ; e a oeste com o Iraque (1.458 km ou 906 milhas) e a Turquia (499 km ou 310 milhas).
O Irã consiste no planalto iraniano , com exceção das costas do Mar Cáspio e do Khuzistão . É um dos países mais montanhosos do mundo, sua paisagem dominada por cadeias de montanhas acidentadas que separam várias bacias ou planaltos uns dos outros. A populosa parte ocidental é a mais montanhosa, com cordilheiras como o Cáucaso , Zagros e Alborz , a última contendo o Monte Damavand , o ponto mais alto do Irã com 5.610 m (18.406 pés), que também é a montanha mais alta da Ásia a oeste do Hindu Kush .
A parte norte do Irã é coberta pelas exuberantes florestas mistas hircanianas do Cáspio , localizadas perto da costa sul do Mar Cáspio. A parte oriental consiste principalmente de bacias desérticas , como o deserto de Kavir , que é o maior deserto do país, e o deserto de Lut , bem como alguns lagos salgados . O Irã teve uma pontuação média do Índice de Integridade da Paisagem Florestal em 2019 de 7,67 / 10, classificando-o em 34º lugar globalmente entre 172 países. 
As únicas grandes planícies são encontradas ao longo da costa do Mar Cáspio e no extremo norte do Golfo Pérsico, onde o país faz fronteira com a foz do rio Arvand . Planícies menores e descontínuas são encontradas ao longo da costa remanescente do Golfo Pérsico, do Estreito de Ormuz e do Golfo de Omã.
Tendo 11 climas dentre os 13 do mundo, o clima do Irã é diverso,  variando de árido e semi-árido a subtropical ao longo da costa do Cáspio e das florestas do norte.  No extremo norte do país (a planície costeira do Cáspio), as temperaturas raramente caem abaixo de zero e a área permanece úmida pelo resto do ano. As temperaturas no verão raramente excedem 29 ° C (84,2 ° F).  A precipitação anual é de 680 mm (26,8 pol.) Na parte oriental da planície e mais de 1.700 mm (66,9 pol.) Na parte ocidental. Gary Lewis, o Coordenador Residente das Nações Unidas para o Irã, disse que "A escassez de água representa o mais grave desafio à segurança humana no Irã hoje". 
A oeste, os assentamentos na bacia de Zagros experimentam temperaturas mais baixas, invernos rigorosos com temperaturas diárias médias abaixo de zero e fortes nevascas. As bacias leste e central são áridas, com menos de 200 mm (7,9 pol.) De chuva e têm desertos ocasionais.  As temperaturas médias no verão raramente excedem 38 ° C (100,4 ° F).  As planícies costeiras do Golfo Pérsico e do Golfo de Omã, no sul do Irã, têm invernos amenos e verões muito úmidos e quentes. A precipitação anual varia de 135 a 355 mm (5,3 a 14,0 in). 
Apesar das mudanças climáticas na região, o Irã é um dos poucos países do mundo que não ratificou o Acordo de Paris . 
A vida selvagem do Irã é composta de várias espécies animais, incluindo ursos , lince eurasiático , raposas , gazelas , lobos cinzentos , chacais , panteras e porcos selvagens .   Outros animais domésticos do Irã incluem búfalos asiáticos , camelos , gado , burros , cabras , cavalos e ovelhas . Águias , falcões , perdizes , faisões, e as cegonhas também são nativas da vida selvagem do Irã.
Um dos membros mais famosos da vida selvagem iraniana é a chita asiática em perigo de extinção , também conhecida como chita iraniana , cujos números foram bastante reduzidos após a Revolução de 1979.  O leopardo persa , que é a maior subespécie de leopardo do mundo vivendo principalmente no norte do Irã, também está listado como uma espécie em extinção.  O Irã perdeu todos os seus leões asiáticos e os agora extintos tigres do Cáspio no início do século 20. 
Pelo menos 74 espécies da fauna iraniana estão na lista vermelha da União Internacional para a Conservação da Natureza , um sinal de sérias ameaças à biodiversidade do país. O Parlamento iraniano tem mostrado desprezo pela vida selvagem ao aprovar leis e regulamentos como a lei que permite ao Ministério das Indústrias e Minas explorar minas sem o envolvimento do Departamento de Meio Ambiente e ao aprovar grandes projetos de desenvolvimento nacional sem exigir um estudo abrangente de seus impacto nos habitats da vida selvagem. 
Chaharmahal e Bakhtiari
Kohgiluyeh e Boyer-Ahmad
Sistão e Baluchistão
Khorasan do Norte
Khorasan do Sul
T u r k e y
Iran is divided into five regions with thirty-one provinces (ostān), each governed by an appointed governor (ostāndār). The provinces are divided into counties (šahrestān), and subdivided into districts (baxš) and sub-districts (dehestān).
The country has one of the highest urban growth rates in the world. From 1950 to 2002, the urban proportion of the population increased from 27% to 60%. The United Nations predicts that by 2030, 80% of the population will be urban.[failed verification] Most internal migrants have settled around the cities of Tehran, Isfahan, Ahvaz, and Qom. The listed populations are from the 2006/07 (1385 AP) census.[failed verification]
Tehran, with a population of around 8.8 million (2016 census), is the capital and largest city of Iran. It is an economical and cultural center, and is the hub of the country's communication and transport network.
The country's second most populous city, Mashhad, has a population of around 3.3 million (2016 census), and is capital of the province of Razavi Khorasan. Being the site of the Imam Reza Shrine, it is a holy city in Shia Islam. About 15 to 20 million pilgrims visit the shrine every year.
Isfahan has a population of around 2.2 million (2016 census), and is Iran's third most populous city. It is the capital of the province of Isfahan, and was also the third capital of the Safavid Empire. It is home to a wide variety of historical sites, including the famous Shah Square, Siosepol, and the churches at the Armenian district of New Julfa. It is also home to the world's seventh largest shopping mall, Isfahan City Center.
The fourth most populous city of Iran, Karaj, has a population of around 1.9 million (2016 census). It is the capital of the province of Alborz, and is situated 20 km west of Tehran, at the foot of the Alborz mountain range. It is a major industrial city in Iran, with large factories producing sugar, textiles, wire, and alcohol.
With a population of around 1.7 million (2016 census), Tabriz is the fifth most populous city of Iran, and had been the second most populous until the late 1960s. It was the first capital of the Safavid Empire, and is now the capital of the province of East Azerbaijan. It is also considered the country's second major industrial city (after Tehran).
Shiraz, with a population of around 1.8 million (2016 census), is Iran's sixth most populous city. It is the capital of the province of Fars, and was also the capital of Iran under the reign of the Zand dynasty. It is located near the ruins of Persepolis and Pasargadae, two of the four capitals of the Achaemenid Empire.
Largest cities or towns in Iran
|2||Mashhad||Razavi Khorasan||3,001,184||12||Zahedan||Sistan and Baluchestan||587,730|
Government and politics
The political system of the Islamic Republic is based on the 1979 Constitution.
The Leader of the Revolution ("Supreme Leader") is responsible for delineation and supervision of the policies of the Islamic Republic of Iran. The Iranian president has limited power compared to the Supreme Leader Khamenei. The current longtime Supreme Leader, Ali Khamenei, has been issuing decrees and making the final decisions on the economy, environment, foreign policy, education, national planning, and everything else in the country. Khamenei also outlines elections guidelines and urges for the transparency, and has fired and reinstated presidential cabinet appointments. Key ministers are selected with the Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei's agreement and he has the ultimate say on Iran's foreign policy. The president-elect is required to gain the Leader Khamenei's official approval before being sworn in before the Parliament (Majlis). Through this process, known as Tanfiz (validation), the Leader agrees to the outcome of the presidential election. The Supreme Leader is directly involved in ministerial appointments for Defense, Intelligence and Foreign Affairs, as well as other top ministries after submission of candidates from the president. Iran's regional policy is directly controlled by the office of the Supreme Leader with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs' task limited to protocol and ceremonial occasions. All of Iran's ambassadors to Arab countries, for example, are chosen by the Quds Corps, which directly reports to the Supreme Leader. The budget bill for every year, as well as withdrawing money from the National Development Fund of Iran, require Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei's approval and permission. The Supreme Leader Khamenei can and did order laws to be amended. Setad, estimated at $95 billion in 2013 by the Reuters, accounts of which are secret even to the Iranian parliament, is controlled only by the Supreme Leader.
The Supreme Leader is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces, controls the military intelligence and security operations, and has sole power to declare war or peace. The heads of the judiciary, the state radio and television networks, the commanders of the police and military forces, and six of the twelve members of the Guardian Council are directly appointed by the Supreme Leader.
The Assembly of Experts is responsible for electing the Supreme Leader, and has the power to dismiss him on the basis of qualifications and popular esteem. To date, the Assembly of Experts has not challenged any of the Supreme Leader's decisions, nor has it attempted to dismiss him. The previous head of the judicial system, Sadeq Larijani, appointed by the Supreme Leader, said that it is illegal for the Assembly of Experts to supervise the Supreme Leader. Due to Khamenei's very longtime unchallenged rule, many believe the Assembly of Experts has become a ceremonial body without any real power. There have been instances when the current Supreme Leader publicly criticized members of the Assembly of Experts, resulting in their arrest and dismissal. For example, Khamenei publicly called then-member of the Assembly of Experts Ahmad Azari Qomi a traitor, resulting in Qomi's arrest and eventual dismissal from the Assembly of Experts. Another instance is when Khamenei indirectly called Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani a traitor for a statement he made, causing Rafsanjani to retract it.
Presidential candidates and parliamentary candidates must be approved by the Guardian Council (all members of which are directly or indirectly appointed by the Leader) or the Leader before running, in order to ensure their allegiance to the Supreme Leader. The Leader very rarely does the vetting himself directly, but has the power to do so, in which case additional approval of the Guardian Council would not be needed. The Leader can also revert the decisions of the Guardian Council. The Guardian Council can, and has dismissed some elected members of the Iranian parliament in the past. For example, Minoo Khaleghi was disqualified by Guardian Council even after winning election, as she had been photographed in a meeting without wearing headscarf.
After the Supreme Leader, the Constitution defines the President of Iran as the highest state authority. The President is elected by universal suffrage for a term of four years, however, the president is still required to gain the Leader's official approval before being sworn in before the Parliament (Majlis). The Leader also has the power to dismiss the elected president anytime. The President can only be re-elected for one term.
The President is responsible for the implementation of the constitution, and for the exercise of executive powers in implementing the decrees and general policies as outlined by the Supreme Leader, except for matters directly related to the Supreme Leader, who has the final say in all matters. Unlike the executive in other countries, the President of Iran does not have full control over anything, as these are ultimately under the control of the Supreme Leader. Chapter IX of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran sets forth the qualifications for presidential candidates. The procedures for presidential election and all other elections in Iran are outlined by the Supreme Leader. The President functions as the executive of affairs such as signing treaties and other international agreements, and administering national planning, budget, and state employment affairs, all as approved by the Supreme Leader.
The President appoints the ministers, subject to the approval of the Parliament, as well as the approval of the Supreme Leader, who can dismiss or reinstate any of the ministers at any time, regardless of the decisions made by the President or the Parliament. The President supervises the Council of Ministers, coordinates government decisions, and selects government policies to be placed before the legislature. The current Supreme Leader, Ali Khamenei, has fired as well as reinstated Council of Ministers members. Eight Vice Presidents serve under the President, as well as a cabinet of twenty-two ministers, who must all be approved by the legislature.
The legislature of Iran, known as the Islamic Consultative Assembly, is a unicameral body comprising 290 members elected for four-year terms. It drafts legislation, ratifies international treaties, and approves the national budget. All parliamentary candidates and all legislation from the assembly must be approved by the Guardian Council.
The Guardian Council comprises twelve jurists, including six appointed by the Supreme Leader. Others are elected by the Parliament, from among the jurists nominated by the Head of the Judiciary. The Council interprets the constitution and may veto the Parliament. If a law is deemed incompatible with the constitution or Sharia (Islamic law), it is referred back to the Parliament for revision. The Expediency Council has the authority to mediate disputes between the Parliament and the Guardian Council, and serves as an advisory body to the Supreme Leader, making it one of the most powerful governing bodies in the country. Local city councils are elected by public vote to four-year terms in all cities and villages of Iran.
The Supreme Leader appoints the head of the country's judiciary, who in turn appoints the head of the Supreme Court and the chief public prosecutor. There are several types of courts, including public courts that deal with civil and criminal cases, and revolutionary courts which deal with certain categories of offenses, such as crimes against national security. The decisions of the revolutionary courts are final and cannot be appealed.
The Special Clerical Court handles crimes allegedly committed by clerics, although it has also taken on cases involving laypeople. The Special Clerical Court functions independently of the regular judicial framework, and is accountable only to the Supreme Leader. The Court's rulings are final and cannot be appealed. The Assembly of Experts, which meets for one week annually, comprises 86 "virtuous and learned" clerics elected by adult suffrage for eight-year terms.
Since the time of the 1979 Revolution, Iran's foreign relations have often been portrayed as being based on two strategic principles; eliminating outside influences in the region, and pursuing extensive diplomatic contacts with developing and non-aligned countries.
Since 2005, Iran's nuclear program has become the subject of contention with the international community, mainly the United States. Many countries have expressed concern that Iran's nuclear program could divert civilian nuclear technology into a weapons program. This has led the United Nations Security Council to impose sanctions against Iran which had further isolated Iran politically and economically from the rest of the global community. In 2009, the U.S. Director of National Intelligence said that Iran, if choosing to, would not be able to develop a nuclear weapon until 2013.
As of 2009[update], the government of Iran maintains diplomatic relations with 99 members of the United Nations, but not with the United States, and not with Israel—a state which Iran's government has derecognized since the 1979 Revolution. Among Muslim nations, Iran has an adversarial relationship with Saudi Arabia due to different political and Islamic ideologies. While Iran is a Shia Islamic Republic, Saudi Arabia is a conservative Sunni monarchy. Regarding the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, the government of Iran has recognized Jerusalem as the capital of the State of Palestine, after Trump recognized Jerusalem as the capital of Israel.
Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. On 14 July 2015, Tehran and the P5+1 came to a historic agreement (Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action) to end economic sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium after demonstrating a peaceful nuclear research project that would meet the International Atomic Energy Agency standards.
Iran is a member of dozens of international organizations, including the G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, IDA, IDB, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, OIC, OPEC, WHO, and the United Nations, and currently has observer status at the World Trade Organization.
According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader, and severely restricts the participation of candidates in popular elections as well as other forms of political activity. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Sexual activity between members of the same sex is illegal and is punishable by up to death.
Over the past decade, numbers of anti-government protests have broken out throughout Iran (such as the 2019–20 Iranian protests), demanding reforms or the end to the Islamic Republic. However, the IRGC and police often suppressed mass protests by violent means, which resulted in thousands of protesters killed.
The Islamic Republic of Iran has two types of armed forces: the regular forces of the Army, the Air Force, and the Navy, and the Revolutionary Guards, totaling about 545,000 active troops. Iran also has around 350,000 Reserve Force, totaling around 900,000 trained troops.
The government of Iran has a paramilitary, volunteer militia force within the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, called the Basij, which includes about 90,000 full-time, active-duty uniformed members. Up to 11 million men and women are members of the Basij who could potentially be called up for service. GlobalSecurity.org estimates Iran could mobilize "up to one million men", which would be among the largest troop mobilizations in the world. In 2007, Iran's military spending represented 2.6% of the GDP or $102 per capita, the lowest figure of the Persian Gulf nations. Iran's military doctrine is based on deterrence. In 2014, the country spent $15 billion on arms, while the states of the Gulf Cooperation Council spent eight times more.
The government of Iran supports the military activities of its allies in Syria, Iraq, and Lebanon (Hezbollah) with military and financial aid. Iran and Syria are close strategic allies, and Iran has provided significant support for the Syrian Government in the Syrian Civil War. According to some estimates, Iran controlled over 80,000 pro-Assad Shi'ite fighters in Syria.
Since the 1979 Revolution, to overcome foreign embargoes, the government of Iran has developed its own military industry, produced its own tanks, armored personnel carriers, missiles, submarines, military vessels, missile destroyer, radar systems, helicopters, and fighter planes. In recent years, official announcements have highlighted the development of weapons such as the Hoot, Kowsar, Zelzal, Fateh-110, Shahab-3, Sejjil, and a variety of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Iran has the largest and most diverse ballistic missile arsenal in the Middle East. The Fajr-3, a liquid fuel missile with an undisclosed range which was developed and produced domestically, is currently the most advanced ballistic missile of the country.
In June 1925, Reza Shah introduced conscription law at National Consultative Majlis. At that time every male person who had reached 21 years old must serve for military for two years. The conscription exempted women from military service after 1979 revolution. Iranian constitution obliges all men of 18 years old and higher to serve in military or police bases. They cannot leave the country or be employed without completion of the service period. The period varies from 18 to 24 months.
Iran's economy is a mixture of central planning, state ownership of oil and other large enterprises, village agriculture, and small-scale private trading and service ventures. In 2017, GDP was $427.7 billion ($1.631 trillion at PPP), or $20,000 at PPP per capita. Iran is ranked as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank. In the early 21st century, the service sector contributed the largest percentage of the GDP, followed by industry (mining and manufacturing) and agriculture.
The Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran is responsible for developing and maintaining the Iranian rial, which serves as the country's currency. The government does not recognize trade unions other than the Islamic labour councils, which are subject to the approval of employers and the security services. The minimum wage in June 2013 was 487 million rials a month ($134). Unemployment has remained above 10% since 1997, and the unemployment rate for women is almost double that of the men.
In 2006, about 45% of the government's budget came from oil and natural gas revenues, and 31% came from taxes and fees. As of 2007[update], Iran had earned $70 billion in foreign-exchange reserves, mostly (80%) from crude oil exports. Iranian budget deficits have been a chronic problem, mostly due to large-scale state subsidies, that include foodstuffs and especially gasoline, totaling more than $84 billion in 2008 for the energy sector alone. In 2010, the economic reform plan was approved by parliament to cut subsidies gradually and replace them with targeted social assistance. The objective is to move towards free market prices in a five-year period and increase productivity and social justice.
The administration continues to follow the market reform plans of the previous one, and indicates that it will diversify Iran's oil-reliant economy. Iran has also developed a biotechnology, nanotechnology, and pharmaceutical industry. However, nationalized industries such as the bonyads have often been managed badly, making them ineffective and uncompetitive with years. Currently, the government is trying to privatize these industries, and, despite successes, there are still several problems to be overcome, such as the lagging corruption in the public sector and lack of competitiveness.
Iran has leading manufacturing industries in the fields of automobile manufacture, transportation, construction materials, home appliances, food and agricultural goods, armaments, pharmaceuticals, information technology, and petrochemicals in the Middle East. According to the 2012 data from the Food and Agriculture Organization, Iran has been among the world's top five producers of apricots, cherries, sour cherries, cucumbers and gherkins, dates, eggplants, figs, pistachios, quinces, walnuts, and watermelons.
Economic sanctions against Iran, such as the embargo against Iranian crude oil, have injured the economy. In 2015, Iran and the P5+1 reached a deal on the nuclear program that removed the main sanctions pertaining to Iran's nuclear program by 2016. According to the BBC, renewed U.S. sanctions against Iran "have led to a sharp downturn in Iran's economy, pushing the value of its currency to record lows, quadrupling its annual inflation rate, driving away foreign investors, and triggering protests."
Although tourism declined significantly during the war with Iraq, it has been subsequently recovered. About 1,659,000 foreign tourists visited Iran in 2004, and 2.3 million in 2009, mostly from Asian countries, including the republics of Central Asia, while about 10% came from the European Union and North America. Since the removal of some sanctions against Iran in 2015, tourism has re-surged in the country. Over five million tourists visited Iran in the fiscal year of 2014–2015, four percent more than the previous year.
Alongside the capital, the most popular tourist destinations are Isfahan, Mashhad, and Shiraz. In the early 2000s, the industry faced serious limitations in infrastructure, communications, industry standards, and personnel training. The majority of the 300,000 travel visas granted in 2003 were obtained by Asian Muslims, who presumably intended to visit pilgrimage sites in Mashhad and Qom. Several organized tours from Germany, France, and other European countries come to Iran annually to visit archaeological sites and monuments. In 2003, Iran ranked 68th in tourism revenues worldwide. According to the UNESCO and the deputy head of research for Iran's Tourism Organization, Iran is rated fourth among the top 10 destinations in the Middle East. Domestic tourism in Iran is one of the largest in the world. Weak advertising, unstable regional conditions, a poor public image in some parts of the world, and absence of efficient planning schemes in the tourism sector have all hindered the growth of tourism.
Iran has a long paved road system linking most of its towns and all of its cities. In 2011 the country had 173,000 kilometres (107,000 mi) of roads, of which 73% were paved. In 2008 there were nearly 100 passenger cars for every 1,000 inhabitants.
Trains operate on 11,106 km (6,942 mi) of railroad track. The country's major port of entry is Bandar-Abbas on the Strait of Hormuz. After arriving in Iran, imported goods are distributed throughout the country by trucks and freight trains. The Tehran–Bandar-Abbas railroad, opened in 1995, connects Bandar-Abbas to the railroad system of Central Asia via Tehran and Mashhad. Other major ports include Bandar e-Anzali and Bandar e-Torkeman on the Caspian Sea and Khorramshahr and Bandar-e Emam Khomeyni on the Persian Gulf.
Dozens of cities have airports that serve passenger and cargo planes. Iran Air, the national airline, was founded in 1962 and operates domestic and international flights. All large cities have mass transit systems using buses, and several private companies provide bus service between cities. Hamadan and Tehran hold the highest betweenness and closeness centrality among the cities of Iran, regarding road and air routes, respectively.
Transport in Iran is inexpensive because of the government's subsidization of the price of gasoline. The downside is a huge draw on government coffers, economic inefficiency because of highly wasteful consumption patterns, contraband with neighboring countries and air pollution. In 2008, more than one million people worked in the transportation sector, accounting for 9% of GDP.
Iran has the world's second largest proved gas reserves after Russia, with 33.6 trillion cubic metres, and the third largest natural gas production after Indonesia and Russia. It also ranks fourth in oil reserves with an estimated 153,600,000,000 barrels. It is OPEC's second largest oil exporter, and is an energy superpower.In 2005, Iran spent US$4 billion on fuel imports, because of contraband and inefficient domestic use. Oil industry output averaged 4 million barrels per day (640,000 m3/d) in 2005, compared with the peak of six million barrels per day reached in 1974. In the early 2000s, industry infrastructure was increasingly inefficient because of technological lags. Few exploratory wells were drilled in 2005.
In 2004, a large share of Iran's natural gas reserves were untapped. The addition of new hydroelectric stations and the streamlining of conventional coal and oil-fired stations increased installed capacity to 33,000 megawatts. Of that amount, about 75% was based on natural gas, 18% on oil, and 7% on hydroelectric power. In 2004, Iran opened its first wind-powered and geothermal plants, and the first solar thermal plant was to come online in 2009. Iran is the world's third country to have developed GTL technology.
Demographic trends and intensified industrialization have caused electric power demand to grow by 8% per year. The government's goal of 53,000 megawatts of installed capacity by 2010 is to be reached by bringing on line new gas-fired plants, and adding hydropower and nuclear power generation capacity. Iran's first nuclear power plant at Bushire went online in 2011. It is the second nuclear power plant ever built in the Middle East after the Metsamor Nuclear Power Plant in Armenia.
Education, science and technology
Education in Iran is highly centralized. K–12 is supervised by the Ministry of Education, and higher education is under the supervision of the Ministry of Science and Technology. The adult literacy rated 93.0% in September 2015, while it had rated 85.0% in 2008, up from 36.5% in 1976.
According to the data provided by UNESCO, Iran's literacy rate among people aged 15 years and older was 85.54% as of 2016, with men (90.35%) being significantly more educated than women (80.79%), with the number of illiterate people of the same age amounting to around 8,700,000 of the country's 85 million population. According to this report, Iranian government's expenditure on education amounts to around 4% of the GDP.
The requirement to enter into higher education is to have a high school diploma and pass the Iranian University Entrance Exam (officially known as konkur (کنکور)), which is the equivalent of the SAT and ACT exams of the United States. Many students do a 1–2-year course of pre-university (piš-dānešgāh), which is the equivalent of the GCE A-levels and the International Baccalaureate. The completion of the pre-university course earns students the Pre-University Certificate.
Iran's higher education is sanctioned by different levels of diplomas, including an associate degree (kārdāni; also known as fowq e diplom) delivered in two years, a bachelor's degree (kāršenāsi; also known as lisāns) delivered in four years, and a master's degree (kāršenāsi e aršad) delivered in two years, after which another exam allows the candidate to pursue a doctoral program (PhD; known as doktorā).
According to the Webometrics Ranking of World Universities (as of January 2017[update]), Iran's top five universities include Tehran University of Medical Sciences (478th worldwide), the University of Tehran (514th worldwide), Sharif University of Technology (605th worldwide), Amirkabir University of Technology (726th worldwide), and the Tarbiat Modares University (789th worldwide).
Iran has increased its publication output nearly tenfold from 1996 through 2004, and has been ranked first in terms of output growth rate, followed by China. According to a study by SCImago in 2012, Iran would rank fourth in the world in terms of research output by 2018, if the current trend persists.
In 2009, a SUSE Linux-based HPC system made by the Aerospace Research Institute of Iran (ARI) was launched with 32 cores, and now runs 96 cores. Its performance was pegged at 192 GFLOPS. The Iranian humanoid robot Sorena 2, which was designed by engineers at the University of Tehran, was unveiled in 2010. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) has placed the name of Surena among the five prominent robots of the world after analyzing its performance.
In the biomedical sciences, Iran's Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics has a UNESCO chair in biology. In late 2006, Iranian scientists successfully cloned a sheep by somatic cell nuclear transfer, at the Royan Research Center in Tehran.
According to a study by David Morrison and Ali Khadem Hosseini (Harvard-MIT and Cambridge), stem cell research in Iran is amongst the top 10 in the world. Iran ranks 15th in the world in nanotechnologies.
Iran placed its domestically built satellite Omid into orbit on the 30th anniversary of the 1979 Revolution, on 2 February 2009, through its first expendable launch vehicle Safir, becoming the ninth country in the world capable of both producing a satellite and sending it into space from a domestically made launcher.
The Iranian nuclear program was launched in the 1950s. Iran is the seventh country to produce uranium hexafluoride, and controls the entire nuclear fuel cycle.
Iranian scientists outside Iran have also made some major contributions to science. In 1960, Ali Javan co-invented the first gas laser, and fuzzy set theory was introduced by Lotfi A. Zadeh. Iranian cardiologist Tofigh Mussivand invented and developed the first artificial cardiac pump, the precursor of the artificial heart Furthering research and treatment of diabetes, the HbA1c was discovered by Samuel Rahbar. Iranian physics is especially strong in string theory, with many papers being published in Iran. Iranian American string theorist Kamran Vafa proposed the Vafa–Witten theorem together with Edward Witten. In August 2014, Iranian mathematician Maryam Mirzakhani became the first woman, as well as the first Iranian, to receive the Fields Medal, the highest prize in mathematics.
Iran is a diverse country, consisting of numerous ethnic and linguistic groups that are unified through a shared Iranian nationality.
Iran's population grew rapidly during the latter half of the 20th century, increasing from about 19 million in 1956 to more than 84 million by July 2020. However, Iran's fertility rate has dropped significantly in recent years, coming down from a fertility rate of 6.5 per woman to less than 2 just two decades later, leading to a population growth rate of about 1.39% as of 2018. Due to its young population, studies project that the growth will continue to slow until it stabilizes around 105 million by 2050.
Iran hosts one of the largest refugee populations in the world, with almost one million refugees, mostly from Afghanistan and Iraq. Since 2006, Iranian officials have been working with the UNHCR and Afghan officials for their repatriation. According to estimates, about five million Iranian citizens have emigrated to other countries, mostly since the 1979 Revolution.
According to the Iranian Constitution, the government is required to provide every citizen of the country with access to social security, covering retirement, unemployment, old age, disability, accidents, calamities, health and medical treatment and care services. This is covered by tax revenues and income derived from public contributions.
The majority of the population speak Persian, which is also the official language of the country. Others include speakers of a number of other Iranian languages within the greater Indo-European family, and languages belonging to some other ethnicities living in Iran.
In northern Iran, mostly confined to Gilan and Mazenderan, the Gilaki and Mazenderani languages are widely spoken, both having affinities to the neighboring Caucasian languages. In parts of Gilan, the Talysh language is also widely spoken, which stretches up to the neighboring Republic of Azerbaijan. Varieties of Kurdish are widely spoken in the province of Kurdistan and nearby areas. In Khuzestan, several distinct varieties of Persian are spoken. Luri and Lari are also spoken in southern Iran.
Azerbaijani, which is by far the most spoken language in the country after Persian, as well as a number of other Turkic languages and dialects, is spoken in various regions of Iran, especially in the region of Azerbaijan.
Notable minority languages in Iran include Armenian, Georgian, Neo-Aramaic, and Arabic. Khuzi Arabic is spoken by the Arabs in Khuzestan, as well as the wider group of Iranian Arabs. Circassian was also once widely spoken by the large Circassian minority, but, due to assimilation over the many years, no sizable number of Circassians speak the language anymore.
Percentages of spoken language continue to be a point of debate, as many opt that they are politically motivated; most notably regarding the largest and second largest ethnicities in Iran, the Persians and Azerbaijanis. Percentages given by the CIA's World Factbook include 53% Persian, 16% Azerbaijani, 10% Kurdish, 7% Mazenderani and Gilaki, 7% Luri, 2% Turkmen, 2% Balochi, 2% Arabic, and 2% the remainder Armenian, Georgian, Neo-Aramaic, and Circassian.
As with the spoken languages, the ethnic group composition also remains a point of debate, mainly regarding the largest and second largest ethnic groups, the Persians and Azerbaijanis, due to the lack of Iranian state censuses based on ethnicity. The CIA's World Factbook has estimated that around 79% of the population of Iran are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise speakers of various Iranian languages, with Persians (including Mazenderanis and Gilaks) constituting 61% of the population, Kurds 10%, Lurs 6%, and Balochs 2%. Peoples of other ethno-linguistic groups make up the remaining 21%, with Azerbaijanis constituting 16%, Arabs 2%, Turkmens and other Turkic tribes 2%, and others (such as Armenians, Talysh, Georgians, Circassians, Assyrians) 1%.
The Library of Congress issued slightly different estimates: 65% Persians (including Mazenderanis, Gilaks, and the Talysh), 16% Azerbaijanis, 7% Kurds, 6% Lurs, 2% Baloch, 1% Turkic tribal groups (incl. Qashqai and Turkmens), and non-Iranian, non-Turkic groups (incl. Armenians, Georgians, Assyrians, Circassians, and Arabs) less than 3%. It determined that Persian is the first language of at least 65% of the country's population, and is the second language for most of the remaining 35%.
Other nongovernmental estimates regarding the groups other than Persians and Azerbaijanis are roughly congruent with the World Factbook and the Library of Congress. However, many estimates regarding the number of these two groups differ significantly from the mentioned census; some place the number of ethnic Azerbaijanis in Iran between 21.6 and 30% of the total population, with the majority holding it on 25%.cd In any case, the largest population of Azerbaijanis in the world live in Iran.
Twelver Shia Islam is the official state religion, to which about 90% to 95% of the population adhere. About 4% to 8% of the population are Sunni Muslims, mainly Kurds and Baloches. The remaining 2% are non-Muslim religious minorities, including Christians, Zoroastrians, Jews, Baháʼís, Mandeans, and Yarsanis.
There are a large population of adherents of Yarsanism, a Kurdish indigenous religion, making it the largest (unrecognized) minority religion in Iran. Its followers are mainly Gorani Kurds and certain groups of Lurs. They are based in Kurdistan Province, Kermanshah Province and Lorestan mainly.
Christianity, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, and the Sunni branch of Islam are officially recognized by the government, and have reserved seats in the Iranian Parliament. Historically, early Iranian religions such as the Proto-Iranic religion and the subsequent Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism were the dominant religions in Iran, particularly during the Median, Achaemenid, Parthian, and Sasanian eras. This changed after the fall of the Sasanian Empire by the centuries-long Islamization that followed the Muslim Conquest of Iran. Iran was predominantly Sunni until the conversion of the country (as well as the people of what is today the neighboring Republic of Azerbaijan) to Shia Islam by the order of the Safavid dynasty in the 16th century.
Judaism has a long history in Iran, dating back to the Achaemenid conquest of Babylonia. Although many left in the wake of the establishment of the State of Israel and the 1979 Revolution, about 8,756 to 25,000 Jewish people live in Iran. Iran has the largest Jewish population in the Middle East outside of Israel.
Around 250,000 to 370,000 Christians reside in Iran, and Christianity is the country's largest recognized minority religion. Most are of Armenian background, as well as a sizable minority of Assyrians. A large number of Iranians have converted to Christianity from the predominant Shia Islam.
The Baháʼí Faith is not officially recognized and has been subject to official persecution. According to the United Nations Special Rapporteur on Human Rights in Iran, Baháʼís are the largest non-Muslim religious minority in Iran, with an estimated 350,000 adherents. Since the 1979 Revolution, the persecution of Baháʼís has increased with executions and denial of civil rights, especially the denial of access to higher education and employment.
Iranian officials have continued to support the rebuilding and renovation of Armenian churches in the Islamic Republic. The Armenian Monastic Ensembles of Iran has also received continued support. In 2019, the Iranian government registered the Holy Savior Cathedral, commonly referred to as Vank Cathedral, in the New Julfa district of Isfahan, as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, with significant expenditures for its congregation. Currently three Armenian churches in Iran have been included in the UNESCO World Heritage List.
The earliest attested cultures in Iran date back to the Lower Paleolithic. Owing to its geopolitical position, Iran has influenced cultures as far as Greece and Italy to the west, Russia to the north, the Arabian Peninsula to the south, and south and east Asia to the east.
The art of Iran encompasses many disciplines, including architecture, stonemasonry, metalworking, weaving, pottery, painting, and calligraphy. Iranian works of art show a great variety in style, in different regions and periods. The art of the Medes remains obscure, but has been theoretically attributed to the Scythian style. The Achaemenids borrowed heavily from the art of their neighboring civilizations, but produced a synthesis of a unique style, with an eclectic architecture remaining at sites such as Persepolis and Pasargadae. Greek iconography was imported by the Seleucids, followed by the recombination of Hellenistic and earlier Near Eastern elements in the art of the Parthians, with remains such as the Temple of Anahita and the Statue of the Parthian Nobleman. By the time of the Sasanians, Iranian art came across a general renaissance. Although of unclear development, Sasanian art was highly influential, and spread into far regions. Taq-e-Bostan, Taq-e-Kasra, Naqsh-e-Rostam, and the Shapur-Khwast Castle are among the surviving monuments from the Sasanian period.
During the Middle Ages, Sasanian art played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art, which carried forward to the Islamic world, and much of what later became known as Islamic learning—including medicine, architecture, philosophy, philology, and literature—were of Sasanian basis.
The Safavid era is known as the Golden Age of Iranian art, and Safavid works of art show a far more unitary development than in any other period, as part of a political evolution that reunified Iran as a cultural entity. Safavid art exerted noticeable influences upon the neighboring Ottomans, the Mughals, and the Deccans, and was also influential through its fashion and garden architecture on 11th–17th-century Europe.
Iran's contemporary art traces its origins back to the time of Kamal-ol-Molk, a prominent realist painter at the court of the Qajar dynasty who affected the norms of painting and adopted a naturalistic style that would compete with photographic works. A new Iranian school of fine art was established by Kamal-ol-Molk in 1928, and was followed by the so-called "coffeehouse" style of painting.
Iran's avant-garde modernists emerged by the arrival of new western influences during World War II. The vibrant contemporary art scene originates in the late 1940s, and Tehran's first modern art gallery, Apadana, was opened in September 1949 by painters Mahmud Javadipur, Hosein Kazemi, and Hushang Ajudani. The new movements received official encouragement by mid-1950s, which led to the emergence of artists such as Marcos Grigorian, signaling a commitment to the creation of a form of modern art grounded in Iran.
The history of architecture in Iran goes back to the seventh millennium BC. Iranians were among the first to use mathematics, geometry and astronomy in architecture. Iranian architecture displays great variety, both structural and aesthetic, developing gradually and coherently out of earlier traditions and experience. The guiding motif of Iranian architecture is its cosmic symbolism, "by which man is brought into communication and participation with the powers of heaven".
Iran ranks seventh among UNESCO's list of countries with the most archaeological ruins and attractions from antiquity.
Traditionally, the guiding formative motif of Iranian architecture has been its cosmic symbolism "by which man is brought into communication and participation with the powers of heaven". This theme has not only given unity and continuity to the architecture of Persia, but has been a primary source of its emotional character as well.
According to Persian historian and archaeologist Arthur Pope, the supreme Iranian art, in the proper meaning of the word, has always been its architecture. The supremacy of architecture applies to both pre- and post-Islamic periods.
Iran's carpet-weaving has its origins in the Bronze Age, and is one of the most distinguished manifestations of Iranian art. Iran is the world's largest producer and exporter of handmade carpets, producing three-quarters of the world's total output and having a share of 30% of world's export markets.
Iran's oldest literary tradition is that of Avestan, the Old Iranian sacred language of the Avesta, which consists of the legendary and religious texts of Zoroastrianism and the ancient Iranian religion, with its earliest records dating back to the pre-Achaemenid times.
Of the various modern languages used in Iran, Persian, various dialects of which are spoken throughout the Iranian Plateau, has the most influential literature. Persian has been dubbed as a worthy language to serve as a conduit for poetry, and is considered one of the four main bodies of world literature. In spite of originating from the region of Persis (better known as Persia) in southwestern Iran, the Persian language was used and developed further through Persianate societies in Asia Minor, Central Asia, and South Asia, leaving massive influences on Ottoman and Mughal literatures, among others.
Iran has a number of famous medieval poets, most notably Rumi, Ferdowsi, Hafez, Saadi Shirazi, Omar Khayyam, and Nezami Ganjavi. Iranian literature also inspired writers such as Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Henry David Thoreau, and Ralph Waldo Emerson.
Iranian philosophy originates from Indo-European roots, with Zoroaster's reforms having major influences.
According to The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy, the chronology of the subject and science of philosophy starts with the Indo-Iranians, dating this event to 1500 BC. The Oxford dictionary also states, "Zarathushtra's philosophy entered to influence Western tradition through Judaism, and therefore on Middle Platonism."
While there are ancient relations between the Indian Vedas and the Iranian Avesta, the two main families of the Indo-Iranian philosophical traditions were characterized by fundamental differences, especially in their implications for the human being's position in society and their view of man's role in the universe.
The Cyrus Cylinder, which is known as "the first charter of human rights", is often seen as a reflection of the questions and thoughts expressed by Zoroaster, and developed in Zoroastrian schools of the Achaemenid era. The earliest tenets of Zoroastrian schools are part of the extant scriptures of the Zoroastrian religion in Avestan. Among them are treatises such as the Zatspram, Shkand-gumanik Vizar, and Denkard, as well as older passages of the Avesta and the Gathas.
Iranian mythology consists of ancient Iranian folklore and stories, all involving extraordinary beings, reflecting attitudes towards the confrontation of good and evil, actions of the gods, and the exploits of heroes and fabulous creatures.
Myths play a crucial part in Iranian culture, and understanding of them is increased when they are considered within the context of actual events in Iranian history. The geography of Greater Iran, a vast area covering present-day Iran, the Caucasus, Anatolia, Mesopotamia and Central Asia, with its high mountain ranges, plays the main role in much of Iranian mythology.
Tenth-century Persian poet Ferdowsi's long epic poem Šāhnāme ("Book of Kings"), which is for the most part based on Xwadāynāmag, a Middle Persian compilation of the history of Iranian kings and heroes from mythical times down to the reign of Chosroes II, is considered the national epic of Iran. It draws heavily on the stories and characters of the Zoroastrian tradition, from the texts of the Avesta, the Denkard, and the Bundahishn.
Iran is the apparent birthplace of the earliest complex instruments, dating back to the third millennium BC. The use of both vertical and horizontal angular harps have been documented at the sites Madaktu and Kul-e Farah, with the largest collection of Elamite instruments documented at Kul-e Farah. Multiple depictions of horizontal harps were also sculpted in Assyrian palaces, dating back between 865 and 650 BC.
Xenophon's Cyropaedia mentions a great number of singing women at the court of the Achaemenid Empire. Athenaeus of Naucratis, in his Deipnosophistae, points out to the capture of Achaemenid singing girls at the court of the last Achaemenid king Darius III (336–330 BC) by Macedonian general Parmenion. Under the Parthian Empire, the gōsān (Parthian for "minstrel") had a prominent role in the society. According to Plutarch's Life of Crassus (32.3), they praised their national heroes and ridiculed their Roman rivals. Likewise, Strabo's Geographica reports that the Parthian youth were taught songs about "the deeds both of the gods and of the noblest men".
The history of Sasanian music is better documented than the earlier periods, and is especially more evident in Avestan texts. By the time of Chosroes II, the Sasanian royal court hosted a number of prominent musicians, namely Azad, Bamshad, Barbad, Nagisa, Ramtin, and Sarkash.
Iranian traditional musical instruments include string instruments such as chang (harp), qanun, santur, rud (oud, barbat), tar, dotar, setar, tanbur, and kamanche, wind instruments such as sorna (zurna, karna) and ney, and percussion instruments such as tompak, kus, daf (dayere), and naqare.
Iran's first symphony orchestra, the Tehran Symphony Orchestra, was founded by Qolam-Hoseyn Minbashian in 1933. It was reformed by Parviz Mahmoud in 1946, and is currently Iran's oldest and largest symphony orchestra. Later, by the late 1940s, Ruhollah Khaleqi founded the country's first national music society, and established the School of National Music in 1949.
Iranian pop music has its origins in the Qajar era. It was significantly developed since the 1950s, using indigenous instruments and forms accompanied by electric guitar and other imported characteristics. The emergence of genres such as rock in the 1960s and hip hop in the 2000s also resulted in major movements and influences in Iranian music.
The earliest recorded representations of dancing figures within Iran were found in prehistoric sites such as Tepe Sialk and Tepe Mūsīān. The oldest Iranian initiation of theater and the phenomena of acting can be traced in the ancient epic ceremonial theaters such as Sug-e Siāvuš ("mourning of Siāvaš"), as well as dances and theater narrations of Iranian mythological tales reported by Herodotus and Xenophon.
Iran's traditional theatrical genres include Baqqāl-bāzi ("grocer play", a form of slapstick comedy), Ruhowzi (or Taxt-howzi, comedy performed over a courtyard pool covered with boards), Siāh-bāzi (in which the central comedian appears in blackface), Sāye-bāzi (shadow play), Xeyme-šab-bāzi (marionette), and Arusak-bāzi (puppetry), and Ta'zie (religious tragedy plays).
Before the 1979 Revolution, the Iranian national stage had become a famous performing scene for known international artists and troupes, with the Roudaki Hall of Tehran constructed to function as the national stage for opera and ballet. Opened on 26 October 1967, the hall is home to the Tehran Symphony Orchestra, the Tehran Opera Orchestra, and the Iranian National Ballet Company, and was officially renamed Vahdat Hall after the 1979 Revolution.
Loris Tjeknavorian's Rostam and Sohrab, based on the tragedy of Rostam and Sohrab from Ferdowsi's epic poem Šāhnāme, is an example of opera with Persian libretto. Tjeknavorian, a celebrated Iranian Armenian composer and conductor, composed it in 25 years, and it was finally performed for the first time at Tehran's Roudaki Hall, with Darya Dadvar in the role of Tahmina.
Cinema and animation
A third-millennium BC earthen goblet discovered at the Burnt City, a Bronze Age urban settlement in southeastern Iran, depicts what could possibly be the world's oldest example of animation. The artifact, associated with Jiroft, bears five sequential images depicting a wild goat jumping up to eat the leaves of a tree. The earliest attested Iranian examples of visual representations, however, are traced back to the bas-reliefs of Persepolis, the ritual center of the Achaemenid Empire. The figures at Persepolis remain bound by the rules of grammar and syntax of visual language. The Iranian visual arts reached a pinnacle by the Sasanian era, and several works from this period have been found to articulate movements and actions in a highly sophisticated manner. It is even possible to see a progenitor of the cinematic close-up shot in one of these works of art, which shows a wounded wild pig escaping from the hunting ground.
By the early 20th century, the five-year-old industry of cinema came to Iran. The first Iranian filmmaker was probably Mirza Ebrahim (Akkas Bashi), the court photographer of Mozaffar-ed-Din Shah of the Qajar dynasty. Mirza Ebrahim obtained a camera and filmed the Qajar ruler's visit to Europe. Later in 1904, Mirza Ebrahim (Sahhaf Bashi), a businessman, opened the first public movie theater in Tehran. After him, several others like Russi Khan, Ardeshir Khan, and Ali Vakili tried to establish new movie theaters in Tehran. Until the early 1930s, there were around 15 cinema theaters in Tehran and 11 in other provinces. The first Iranian feature film, Abi and Rabi, was a silent comedy directed by Ovanes Ohanian in 1930. The first sounded one, Lor Girl, was produced by Ardeshir Irani and Abd-ol-Hosein Sepanta in 1932.
Iran's animation industry began by the 1950s, and was followed by the establishment of the influential Institute for the Intellectual Development of Children and Young Adults in January 1965. The 1960s was a significant decade for Iranian cinema, with 25 commercial films produced annually on average throughout the early 60s, increasing to 65 by the end of the decade. The majority of the production focused on melodrama and thrillers. With the screening of the films Qeysar and The Cow, directed by Masoud Kimiai and Dariush Mehrjui respectively in 1969, alternative films set out to establish their status in the film industry and Bahram Beyzai's Downpour and Nasser Taghvai's Tranquility in the Presence of Others followed soon. Attempts to organize a film festival, which had begun in 1954 within the framework of the Golrizan Festival, resulted in the festival of Sepas in 1969. The endeavors also resulted in the formation of the Tehran's World Film Festival in 1973.
After the Revolution of 1979, and following the Cultural Revolution, a new age emerged in Iranian cinema, starting with Long Live! by Khosrow Sinai and followed by many other directors, such as Abbas Kiarostami and Jafar Panahi. Kiarostami, an acclaimed Iranian director, planted Iran firmly on the map of world cinema when he won the Palme d'Or for Taste of Cherry in 1997. The continuous presence of Iranian films in prestigious international festivals, such as the Cannes Film Festival, the Venice Film Festival, and the Berlin International Film Festival, attracted world attention to Iranian masterpieces. In 2006, six Iranian films, of six different styles, represented Iranian cinema at the Berlin International Film Festival. Critics considered this a remarkable event in the history of Iranian cinema.
Asghar Farhadi, a well-known Iranian director, has received a Golden Globe Award and two Academy Awards, representing Iran for Best Foreign Language Film in 2012 and 2017. In 2012, he was named as one of the 100 Most Influential People in the world by the American news magazine Time.
Iran's official New Year begins with Nowruz, an ancient Iranian tradition celebrated annually on the vernal equinox. It is enjoyed by people adhering to different religions, but is considered a holiday for the Zoroastrians. It was registered on the UNESCO's list of Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity in 2009, described as the Persian New Year, shared with a number of other countries in which it has historically been celebrated.
On the eve of the last Wednesday of the preceding year, as a prelude to Nowruz, the ancient festival of Čāršanbe Suri celebrates Ātar ("fire") by performing rituals such as jumping over bonfires and lighting off firecrackers and fireworks. The Nowruz celebrations last by the end of the 13th day of the Iranian year (Farvardin 13, usually coincided with 1 or 2 April), celebrating the festival of Sizdebedar, during which the people traditionally go outdoors to picnic.
Yaldā, another nationally celebrated ancient tradition, commemorates the ancient goddess Mithra and marks the longest night of the year on the eve of the winter solstice (čelle ye zemestān; usually falling on 20 or 21 December), during which families gather together to recite poetry and eat fruits—particularly the red fruits watermelon and pomegranate, as well as mixed nuts. In some regions of the provinces of Mazanderan and Markazi, there is also the midsummer festival of Tirgān, which is observed on Tir 13 (2 or 3 July) as a celebration of water.
Alongside the ancient Iranian celebrations, Islamic annual events such as Ramezān, Eid e Fetr, and Ruz e Āšurā are marked by the country's large Muslim population, Christian traditions such as Noel, Čelle ye Ruze, and Eid e Pāk are observed by the Christian communities, Jewish traditions such as Purim, Hanukā, and Eid e Fatir (Pesah) are observed by the Jewish communities, and Zoroastrian traditions such as Sade and Mehrgān are observed by the Zoroastrians.
Iran's official calendar is the Solar Hejri calendar, beginning at the vernal equinox in the Northern Hemisphere, which was first enacted by the Iranian Parliament on 31 March 1925. Each of the 12 months of the Solar Hejri calendar correspond with a zodiac sign, and the length of each year is absolutely solar. The months are named after the ancient Iranian months, namely Farvardin (Fravaši), Ordibehešt (Aša Vahišta), Xordād (Haurvatāt), Tir (Tištrya), Amordād (Amərətāt), Šahrivar (Xšaθra Vairya), Mehr (Miθra), Ābān (Āpō), Āzar (Ātar), Dey (Daθuš), Bahman (Vohu Manah), and Esfand (Spəntā Ārmaiti).
Alternatively, the Lunar Hejri calendar is used to indicate Islamic events, and the Gregorian calendar remarks the international events.
Legal public holidays based on the Iranian solar calendar include the cultural celebrations of Nowruz (Farvardin 1–4; 21–24 March) and Sizdebedar (Farvardin 13; 2 April), and the political events of Islamic Republic Day (Farvardin 12; 1 April), the death of Ruhollah Khomeini (Khordad 14; 4 June), the Khordad 15 event (Khordad 15; 5 June), the anniversary of the 1979 Revolution (Bahman 22; 10 February), and Oil Nationalization Day (Esfand 29; 19 March).
Lunar Islamic public holidays include Tasua (Muharram 9; 30 September), Ashura (Muharram 10; 1 October), Arba'een (Safar 20; 10 November), the death of Muhammad (Safar 28; 17 November), the death of Ali al-Ridha (Safar 29 or 30; 18 November), the birthday of Muhammad (Rabi-al-Awwal 17; 6 December), the death of Fatimah (Jumada-al-Thani 3; 2 March), the birthday of Ali (Rajab 13; 10 April), Muhammad's first revelation (Rajab 27; 24 April), the birthday of Muhammad al-Mahdi (Sha'ban 15; 12 May), the death of Ali (Ramadan 21; 16 June), Eid al-Fitr (Shawwal 1–2; 26–27 June), the death of Ja'far al-Sadiq (Shawwal 25; 20 July), Eid al-Qurban (Zulhijja 10; 1 September), and Eid al-Qadir (Zulhijja 18; 9 September).
Due to its variety of ethnic groups and the influences from the neighboring cultures, the cuisine of Iran is diverse. Herbs are frequently used, along with fruits such as plums, pomegranate, quince, prunes, apricots, and raisins. To achieve a balanced taste, characteristic flavorings such as saffron, dried lime, cinnamon, and parsley are mixed delicately and used in some special dishes. Onion and garlic are commonly used in the preparation of the accompanying course, but are also served separately during meals, either in raw or pickled form.
Iranian cuisine includes a wide range of main dishes, including various types of kebab, pilaf, stew (khoresh), soup and āsh, and omelette. Lunch and dinner meals are commonly accompanied by side dishes such as plain yogurt or mast-o-khiar, sabzi, salad Shirazi, and torshi, and might follow dishes such as borani, Mirza Qasemi, or kashk e bademjan as the appetizer.
In Iranian culture, tea (čāy) is widely consumed. Iran is the world's seventh major tea producer, and a cup of tea is typically the first thing offered to a guest. One of Iran's most popular desserts is the falude, consisting of vermicelli in a rose water syrup, which has its roots in the fourth century BC. There is also the popular saffron ice cream, known as bastani sonnati ("traditional ice cream"), which is sometimes accompanied with carrot juice. Iran is also famous for its caviar.
Iran is most likely the birthplace of polo, locally known as čowgān, with its earliest records attributed to the ancient Medes. Freestyle wrestling is traditionally considered the national sport of Iran, and the national wrestlers have been world champions on many occasions. Iran's traditional wrestling, called košti e pahlevāni ("heroic wrestling"), is registered on UNESCO's Intangible Cultural Heritage list.
Being a mountainous country, Iran is a venue for skiing, snowboarding, hiking, rock climbing, and mountain climbing. It is home to several ski resorts, the most famous being Tochal, Dizin, and Shemshak, all within one to three hours traveling from the capital city Tehran. The resort of Tochal, located in the Alborz mountain rage, is the world's fifth-highest ski resort (3,730 m or 12,238 ft at its highest station).
Iran's National Olympic Committee was founded in 1947. Wrestlers and weightlifters have achieved the country's highest records at the Olympics. In September 1974, Iran became the first country in West Asia to host the Asian Games. The Azadi Sport Complex, which is the largest sport complex in Iran, was originally built for this occasion.
Football has been regarded as the most popular sport in Iran, with the men's national team having won the Asian Cup on three occasions. The men's national team has maintained its position as Asia's best team, ranking 1st in Asia and 33rd in the world according to the FIFA World Rankings (as of May 2020[update]).
Volleyball is the second most popular sport in Iran. Having won the 2011 and 2013 Asian Men's Volleyball Championships, the men's national team is currently the strongest team in Asia, and ranks eighth in the FIVB World Rankings (as of July 2017[update]).
Basketball is also popular, with the men's national team having won three Asian Championships since 2007.
In 2016, Iran made global headlines for international female champions boycotting tournaments in Iran in chess (U.S. Woman Grandmaster Nazí Paikidze) and in shooting (Indian world champion Heena Sidhu), as they refused to enter a country where they would be forced to wear a hijab.
Iran is one of the countries with the worst freedom of the press situation, ranking 164th out of 180 countries on the Press Freedom Index (as of 2018). The Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance is Iran's main government department responsible for the cultural policy, including activities regarding communications and information.
Iran's first newspapers were published during the reign of Naser al-Din Shah of the Qajar dynasty in the mid-19th century. Most of the newspapers published in Iran are in Persian, the country's official language. The country's most widely circulated periodicals are based in Tehran, among which are Etemad, Ettela'at, Kayhan, Hamshahri, Resalat, and Shargh. Tehran Times, Iran Daily, and Financial Tribune are among English-language newspapers based in Iran.
Television was introduced in Iran in 1958. Although the 1974 Asian Games were broadcast in color, full color programming began in 1978. Since the 1979 Revolution, Iran's largest media corporation is the Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB). Despite the restrictions on non-domestic television, about 65% of the residents of the capital city and about 30 to 40% of the residents outside the capital city access worldwide television channels through satellite dishes, although observers state that the figures are likely to be higher.
Iran received access to the Internet in 1993. According to Internet World Stats, as of 2017[update], around 69.1% of the population of Iran are Internet users. Iran ranks 17th among countries by number of Internet users. According to the statistics provided by the web information company of Alexa, Google Search is Iran's most widely used search engine and Instagram is the most popular online social networking service. Direct access to many worldwide mainstream websites has been blocked in Iran, including Facebook, which has been blocked since 2009 due to the organization of anti-governmental protests on the website. However, as of 2017[update], Facebook has around 40 million subscribers based in Iran (48.8% of the population) who use virtual private networks and proxy servers to access the website. Some of the officials themselves have verified accounts on the social networking websites that are blocked by the authorities, including Facebook and Twitter. About 90% of Iran's e-commerce takes place on the Iranian online store of Digikala, which has around 750,000 visitors per day and more than 2.3 million subscribers and is the most visited online store in the Middle East.
Fashion and clothing
Fashion in Iran is divided into several historical periods. The exact date of the emergence of weaving in Iran is not yet known, but it is likely to coincide with the emergence of civilization. Clothing in Iran is mentioned in Persian mythology. Ferdowsi and many historians have considered Keyumars to be the inventor of the use of animals' skin and hair as clothing. Some historians have also mentioned Hushang as the first inventor of the use of living skins as clothing. Ferdowsi considers Tahmuras to be a kind of textile initiator in Iran. There are historical discoveries in northern Iran from about 6,000 BC that refer to wool weaving at the time. Other discoveries in central Iran dating back to 4200 BC have shown that the animals' skin has not been the only clothing worn on the Iranian Plateau since those years. The clothing of ancient Iran took an advanced form, and the fabric and color of clothing became very important at that time. Depending on the social status, eminence, climate of the region and the season, Persian clothing during the Achaemenian period took various forms. The philosophy used in this clothing, in addition to being functional, also had an aesthetic role.
Beauty pageant festivals inside Iran were not held after the 1979 revolution, and the last selection ceremony of the "beauty queen of Iran" was held in 1978 in this country. Since then, a high number of Iranian girls participated in the Beauty pageant and Miss Universe outside of Iran. Sahar Biniaz (Miss Universe Canada 2012) and Shermineh Shahrivar (Miss Germany and Miss Europe) are examples of Iranian models outside Iran. Girls of Enghelab Street was a series of protests in 2017–2019 against a compulsory hijab in Iran.
- List of Iran-related topics
- Outline of Iran
- Name of Iran
- ^ Including the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic
- ^ In the Avesta, the airiia- are members of the ethnic group of the Avesta-reciters themselves, in contradistinction to the anairiia- (the "non-Arya"). The word also appears four times in Old Persian: One is in the Behistun inscription, where ariya- is the name of a language (DB 4.89). The other three instances occur in Darius I's inscription at Naqsh-e Rustam (DNa 14–15), in Darius I's inscription at Susa (DSe 13–14), and in the inscription of Xerxes I at Persepolis (XPh 12–13). In these, the two Achaemenid dynasties describe themselves as pārsa pārsahyā puça ariya ariyaciça "a Persian, son of a Persian, an Ariya, of Ariya origin."—The phrase with ciça ("origin, descendance") assures that ariya is an ethnic name wider in meaning than pārsa and not a simple adjectival epithet.
- ^ Jeroen Temperman (2010). State-Religion Relationships and Human Rights Law: Towards a Right to Religiously Neutral Governance. Brill. pp. 87–. ISBN 978-90-04-18148-9.
The official motto of Iran is Takbir ('God is the Greatest' or 'God is Great'). Transliteration Allahu Akbar. As referred to in art. 18 of the constitution of Iran (1979). The de facto motto however is: 'Independence, freedom, the Islamic Republic.'
- ^ "Iran - Languages". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 9 January 2020.
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Similarly the collapse of Sassanian Eranshahr in AD 650 did not end Iranians' national idea. The name 'Iran' disappeared from official records of the Saffarids, Samanids, Buyids, Saljuqs and their successor. But one unofficially used the name Iran, Eranshahr, and similar national designations, particularly Mamalek-e Iran or 'Iranian lands', which exactly translated the old Avestan term Ariyanam Daihunam. On the other hand, when the Safavids (not Reza Shah, as is popularly assumed) revived a national state officially known as Iran, bureaucratic usage in the Ottoman empire and even Iran itself could still refer to it by other descriptive and traditional appellations.
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" "Iran" and "Persia" are synonymous" The former has always been used by the Iranian speaking peoples themselves, while the latter has served as the international name of the country in various languages
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- ^ Name of Iran
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I spent all my life working in Iran, and as you know I don't mean Iran of today, I mean Greater Iran, the Iran which in the past, extended all the way from China to borders of Hungary and from other Mongolia to Mesopotamia
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The 'historical lands of Iran' – 'Greater Iran' – were always known in the Persian language as Irānshahr or Irānzamīn.
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I use the term Iran in an historical context [...] Persia would be used for the modern state, more or less equivalent to "western Iran". I use the term "Greater Iran" to mean what I suspect most Classicists and ancient historians really mean by their use of Persia – that which was within the political boundaries of States ruled by Iranians.
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