Montreal ( francês )
|Ville de Montreal|
Do topo, da esquerda para a direita: horizonte do centro de Montreal à noite, Velha Montreal , Basílica de Notre-Dame , Antigo porto de Montreal , Oratório de São José , Estádio Olímpico
|Lema (s): |
Concordia Salus ("bem-estar por meio da harmonia")
Localização dentro da aglomeração urbana
Localização em Quebec
|Coordenadas: 45 ° 30′32 ″ N 73 ° 33′15 ″ W / 45.50889°N 73.55417°W / 45.50889; -73.55417 Coordenadas : 45 ° 30′32 ″ N 73 ° 33′15 ″ W / 45.50889°N 73.55417°W / 45.50889; -73.55417|
|UA||Aglomeração urbana de Montreal|
|Fundado||17 de maio de 1642|
|Constituído||1 ° de janeiro de 2002|
|• Modelo||Montreal City Council|
|• Prefeito||Valérie Plante|
|• Equitação federal|
|• Prov. cavalgando|
Lista de deputados
|• cidade||431,50 km 2 (166,60 sq mi)|
|• Terra||365,13 km 2 (140,98 sq mi)|
| • Urbano|
|1.293,99 km 2 (499,61 sq mi)|
| • Metro|
|4.604,26 km 2 (1.777,71 sq mi)|
|Elevação mais alta||233 m (764 pés)|
|Elevação mais baixa||6 m (20 pés)|
|• Densidade||3.889 / km 2 (10.070 / sq mi)|
| • Urbano|
|• Densidade urbana||2.719 / km 2 (7.040 / sq mi)|
| • Metro|
|4.098.927 ( 2ª )|
|• Densidade metropolitana||890 / km 2 (2.300 / sq mi)|
|• Pop 2011–2016||2,9%|
|Demônimo (s)||Montrealer |
Montréalais (e) 
|Fuso horário||UTC − 05: 00 ( EST )|
|• Verão ( DST )||UTC − 04: 00 (EDT)|
H (exceto H7 para Laval )
|Código (s) de área||514 e 438 e 263|
|Polícia||Serviço de polícia de la Ville de Montreal|
|PIB (Montreal CMA )||CA $ 200,9 bilhões (2016) |
|PIB per capita (Montreal CMA )||CA $ 49.024 (2016)|
|Local na rede Internet||montreal .ca|
Montreal ( / ˌ m ʌ n t r i ɔː l / ( escutar ) MUN -tree- AWL ; oficialmente Montreal , francês: [mɔʁeal] ( escutar ) , Tio'tia: ke em Mohawk ) é a segunda mais populosa cidade no Canadá e a cidade mais populosa da província canadense de Quebec . Fundada em 1642 como Ville-Marie , ou "Cidade de Maria", tem o nome do Monte Real ,  a colina de três picos no coração da cidade. A cidade está centrada na Ilha de Montreal , que recebeu seu nome da mesma origem da cidade,   e algumas ilhas periféricas muito menores, a maior das quais é a Île Bizard . A cidade está situada a 196 km (122 milhas) a leste da capital nacional, Ottawa , e a 258 km (160 milhas) a sudoeste da capital provincial, Quebec .
Em 2016, a cidade tinha uma população de 1.704.694,  com uma população de 1.942.247 na aglomeração urbana , incluindo todos os demais municípios da Ilha de Montreal.  A área metropolitana mais ampla tinha uma população de 4.098.247.  O francês é a língua oficial da cidade   e em 2016 era a língua materna de 61,2% da população, enquanto 26,4% falavam línguas não oficiais em casa e o inglês era falado por 23,1% dos habitantes ( respostas multilíngues foram incluídas nessas figuras).  Na maior Área Metropolitana do Censo de Montreal, 71,2% da população falava pelo menos francês em casa, em comparação com 19,0% que falavam inglês.  Ainda em 2016, 87,4% da população da cidade de Montreal se considerava fluente em francês, enquanto 91,4% falava na área metropolitana.   Montreal é uma das cidades mais bilíngues de Quebec e Canadá, com 57,4% da população capaz de falar inglês e francês.  Montreal é a segunda maior cidade de língua francesa no mundo desenvolvido, depois de Paris .    
Historicamente, a capital comercial do Canadá, Montreal foi superada em população e em força econômica por Toronto na década de 1970.  Continua a ser um importante centro de comércio, aeroespacial, transporte, finanças, produtos farmacêuticos, tecnologia, design, educação, arte, cultura, turismo, comida, moda, desenvolvimento de videogames, cinema e assuntos mundiais. Montreal tem o segundo maior número de consulados na América do Norte,  serve como a localização da sede da Organização de Aviação Civil Internacional e foi nomeada como Cidade do Design da UNESCO em 2006.   Em 2017, Montreal foi classificada como a 12ª cidade mais habitável do mundo pelaEconomist Intelligence Unit em seu Global Liveability Ranking anual ,  e a melhor cidade do mundo para ser um estudante universitário no QS World University Rankings . 
Montreal sediou várias conferências e eventos internacionais, incluindo a Exposição Internacional e Universal de 1967 e os Jogos Olímpicos de Verão de 1976 .   É a única cidade canadense a sediar as Olimpíadas de verão quadrienais. Em 2018, Montreal foi classificada como uma cidade do mundo Alpha .  A cidade hospeda o Grande Prêmio do Canadá de Fórmula 1 desde 1978,  bem como o Festival Internacional de Jazz de Montreal ,  o maior festival de jazz do mundo,  o festival Just for Laughs e Les Francos de Montréal , que é o maior evento dedicado exclusivamente à música francesa em qualquer lugar do mundo.  É também a casa do time de hóquei no gelo Montreal Canadiens , a franquia com mais vitórias na Copa Stanley .
Etimologia [ editar ]
Na língua mohawk , a ilha é chamada de Tiohtià: ke Tsi . Este nome se refere às Corredeiras de Lachine ao sudoeste da ilha ou Ka-wé-no-te . Significa "um lugar onde nações e rios se unem e se dividem". [ citação necessária ]
Na língua ojíbua , a terra é chamada de Mooniyaang , que serviu como "o primeiro ponto de parada" na história da migração ojíbua, conforme relatado na profecia dos sete fogos .
Os colonos europeus de La Flèche, no vale do Loire, deram o primeiro nome à sua nova cidade, fundada em 1642, Ville Marie ("Cidade de Maria"),  em homenagem à Virgem Maria .  Seu nome atual vem de Mount Royal,  a colina de três picos no coração da cidade. De acordo com uma teoria, os deriva do nome de Mont Réal , ( Mont Royal em francês moderno, embora no século 16 francês as formas reais e real foram usados alternadamente); A entrada do diário de Cartier em 1535, nomeando a montanha, refere-se a le mont Royal . Um dos oficiais de Cartier era Claude de Pontbriand, senhor do Château de Montréal ,  na parte da França de língua occitana . O topônimo Montreal e sua forma invertida Réalmont , a tradução occitana direta do francês mont royal (ou royal mont ), são comuns no sul da França. Uma possibilidade, observada pelo governo do Canadá em seu site a respeito dos topônimos canadenses, especula que o nome como está atualmente escrito se originou quando um mapa antigo de 1556 usava o nome italiano da montanha, Monte Real ;  da Comissão de toponymie du Québecdescartou essa ideia como um equívoco. 
História [ editar ]
Contato Pré-Europeu [ editar ]
Evidências arqueológicas na região indicam que os nativos das Primeiras Nações ocuparam a ilha de Montreal já há 4.000 anos.  No ano 1000 DC, eles começaram a cultivar milho . Dentro de algumas centenas de anos, eles construíram aldeias fortificadas .  Os iroqueses de São Lourenço , um grupo étnica e culturalmente distinto das nações iroquesas de Haudenosaunee(então com sede na atual Nova York), estabeleceu a vila de Hochelaga no sopé do Monte Royal dois séculos antes da chegada dos franceses. Os arqueólogos encontraram evidências de sua habitação lá e em outros locais do vale desde pelo menos o século XIV.  O explorador francês Jacques Cartier visitou Hochelaga em 2 de outubro de 1535 e estimou a população do povo nativo em Hochelaga em "mais de mil pessoas".  Evidências de ocupação anterior da ilha, como as descobertas em 1642 durante a construção do Forte Ville-Marie, foram efetivamente removidas.
Liquidação antecipada Europeia (1600-1760) [ editar ]
Em 1603, o explorador francês Samuel de Champlain relatou que os iroqueses de São Lourenço e seus assentamentos haviam desaparecido completamente do vale de São Lourenço. Acredita-se que isso seja devido à emigração, epidemias de doenças europeias ou guerras intertribais.   Em 1611, Champlain estabeleceu um posto comercial de peles na Ilha de Montreal em um local inicialmente denominado La Place Royale . Na confluência do Petite Riviere com o Rio São Lourenço, é onde se encontra a atual Pointe-à-Callière . Em seu mapa de 1616, Champlain nomeou a ilha Lille de Villemenon em homenagem ao sieur de Villemenon, um dignitário francês que buscava o vice-rei da Nova França.  Em 1639, Jérôme Le Royer de La Dauversière obteve o título Seigneurial da Ilha de Montreal em nome da Sociedade Notre Dame de Montreal para estabelecer uma missão católica romana para evangelizar os nativos.
Dauversiere contratou Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve , então com 30 anos, para liderar um grupo de colonos para construir uma missão em seu novo senhorio. Os colonos deixaram a França em 1641 para Quebec e chegaram à ilha no ano seguinte. Em 17 de maio de 1642, Ville-Marie foi fundada na costa sul da ilha de Montreal, com Maisonneuve como seu primeiro governador. O assentamento incluiu uma capela e um hospital, sob o comando de Jeanne Mance . Em 1643, Ville-Marie já havia sido atacada por ataques iroqueses. Na primavera de 1651, os ataques iroqueses se tornaram tão frequentes e violentos que Ville-Marie pensou que seu fim havia chegado. Maisonneuve fez com que todos os colonos se refugiassem no forte. Em 1652, a colônia de Montreal havia sido tão reduzida que ele foi forçado a retornar à França para levantar 100 voluntários para ir com ele para a colônia no ano seguinte. Se o esforço tivesse falhado, Montreal seria abandonada e os sobreviventes realocados rio abaixo para a cidade de Quebec . Antes da chegada desses 100, no outono de 1653, a população de Montreal mal chegava a 50 pessoas.
Em 1685, Ville-Marie era o lar de cerca de 600 colonos, a maioria deles morando em modestas casas de madeira. Ville-Marie tornou-se um centro de comércio de peles e uma base para novas explorações .  Em 1689, os iroqueses aliados ingleses atacaram Lachine na Ilha de Montreal, cometendo o pior massacre da história da Nova França.  No início do século 18, a Ordem Sulpiciana foi estabelecida lá. Para encorajar a colonização francesa, ele queria que o Mohawk se mudasse do entreposto comercial de peles em Ville-Marie. Tinha uma aldeia missão, conhecida como Kahnewake, ao sul do Rio São Lourenço. Os pais persuadiram alguns moicanos a fazer um novo assentamento em seus antigos campos de caça ao norte do rio Ottawa. Isso se tornou Kanesatake .  Em 1745, várias famílias Mohawk se mudaram rio acima para criar outro assentamento, conhecido como Akwesasne . Todos os três são agora reservas Mohawk no Canadá. O território canadense foi governado como uma colônia francesa até 1760, quando Montreal sofreu uma ofensiva britânica durante a Guerra dos Sete Anos . A colônia então se rendeu à Grã-Bretanha. 
Ville-Marie foi o nome do assentamento que apareceu em todos os documentos oficiais até 1705, quando Montreal apareceu pela primeira vez, embora as pessoas se referissem à "Ilha de Montreal" muito antes disso. 
Ocupação americana (1775-1776) [ editar ]
Como parte da Revolução Americana , a invasão de Quebec resultou depois que Benedict Arnold capturou o Forte Ticonderoga no atual interior do estado de Nova York em maio de 1775 como um ponto de partida para a invasão de Quebec por Arnold em setembro . Enquanto Arnold se aproximava das Planícies de Abraham , Montreal caiu para as forças americanas lideradas por Richard Montgomery em 13 de novembro de 1775, depois de ter sido abandonado por Guy Carleton . Depois que Arnold se retirou da cidade de Quebec para Pointe-aux-Trembles em 19 de novembro, as forças de Montgomery deixaram Montreal em 1º de dezembro e chegaram lá em 3 de dezembro para conspirar para atacar a cidade de Quebec., com Montgomery deixando David Wooster no comando da cidade. Montgomery foi morto no ataque fracassado e Arnold, que havia assumido o comando, enviou o Brigadeiro General Moses Hazen para informar Wooster da derrota.
Wooster deixou Hazen no comando em 20 de março de 1776, quando partiu para substituir Arnold na liderança de novos ataques à cidade de Quebec. Em 19 de abril, Arnold chegou a Montreal para assumir o comando de Hazen, que permaneceu como seu segundo em comando. Hazen enviou o coronel Timothy Bedel para formar uma guarnição de 390 homens a 40 milhas rio acima em uma guarnição em Les Cèdres, Quebec , para defender Montreal contra o exército britânico. Na Batalha dos Cedros , o tenente de Bedel, Isaac Butterfield, se rendeu a George Forster.
Forster avançou para Fort Senneville em 23 de maio. Em 24 de maio, Arnold estava entrincheirado no bairro de Lachine, em Montreal . Forster inicialmente abordou Lachine, depois retirou-se para Quinze-Chênes . As forças de Arnold então abandonaram Lachine para perseguir Forster. Os americanos queimaram Senneville em 26 de maio. Depois que Arnold cruzou o rio Ottawa em busca de Forster, os canhões de Forster repeliram as forças de Arnold. Forster negociou uma troca de prisioneiros com Henry Sherburne e Isaac Butterfield, resultando em um passeio de barco de seu vice-tenente Park em 27 de maio, devolvido aos americanos. Arnold e Forster negociaram mais e mais prisioneiros americanos foram devolvidos a Arnold em Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec, ("Fort Anne") em 30 de maio (atrasado dois dias pelo vento).
Arnold finalmente retirou suas forças de volta para o forte de Ticonderoga, em Nova York, no verão. Em 15 de junho, o mensageiro de Arnold se aproximando de Sorel avistou Carleton voltando com uma frota de navios e o notificou. As forças de Arnold abandonaram Montreal (tentando incendiá-la no processo) antes da chegada da frota de Carleton em 17 de junho.
Os norte-americanos não devolveram prisioneiros britânicos em troca, conforme acordado anteriormente, devido a acusações de abusos, com o Congresso repudiando o acordo no protesto de George Washington. Arnold culpou o coronel Timothy Bedel pela derrota, removendo ele e o tenente Butterfield do comando e enviando-os a Sorel para corte marcial. A retirada do exército americano atrasou sua corte marcial até 1º de agosto de 1776, quando foram condenados e dispensados em Ticonderoga. Bedel recebeu uma nova comissão pelo Congresso em outubro de 1777 depois que Arnold foi designado para defender Rhode Island em julho de 1777 .
A história moderna como a cidade (1832-presente) [ editar ]
Montreal foi incorporada como uma cidade em 1832.  A abertura do Canal de Lachine permitiu que os navios contornassem o inavegável Lachine Rapids,  enquanto a construção da Victoria Bridge estabeleceu Montreal como um importante centro ferroviário. Os líderes da comunidade empresarial de Montreal começaram a construir suas casas na Golden Square Mile (~ 2,6 km 2 ) por volta de 1850. Em 1860, era o maior município da América do Norte britânica e o indiscutível centro econômico e cultural do Canadá.  
No século 19, manter a água potável de Montreal tornou-se cada vez mais difícil com o rápido aumento da população. A maior parte da água potável ainda vinha do porto da cidade, que estava movimentado e com muito tráfego, levando à deterioração da água em seu interior. Em meados da década de 1840, a cidade de Montreal instalou um sistema de água que bombearia água do rio St. Lawrence para cisternas. As cisternas seriam então transportadas para o local desejado. Este não foi o primeiro sistema de água desse tipo em Montreal, já que existia um sistema de propriedade privada desde 1801. Em meados do século 19, a distribuição de água era feita por "fontainiers". Os chafarizes abriam e fechavam as válvulas de água fora dos edifícios, conforme as instruções, por toda a cidade. Como não tinham sistemas de encanamento modernos, era impossível conectar todos os edifícios de uma vez e também funcionava como um método de conservação. No entanto, a população não acabou de aumentar - passou de 58.000 em 1852 para 267.000 em 1901.   
Montreal foi a capital da Província do Canadá de 1844 a 1849, mas perdeu seu status quando uma turba conservadora incendiou o prédio do Parlamento para protestar contra a aprovação do Projeto de Lei das Perdas da Rebelião .  Posteriormente, a capital girou entre a cidade de Quebec e Toronto até que, em 1857, a própria Rainha Vitória estabeleceu Ottawacomo capital por razões estratégicas. As razões foram duas. Primeiro, por estar localizado mais no interior da Província do Canadá, era menos suscetível a ataques dos Estados Unidos. Em segundo lugar, e talvez mais importante, porque ficava na fronteira entre o Canadá francês e inglês, Ottawa era vista como um compromisso entre Montreal, Toronto, Kingston e Quebec City, que estavam competindo para se tornar a capital oficial da jovem nação. Ottawa manteve o status de capital do Canadá quando a Província do Canadá se juntou à Nova Escócia e New Brunswick para formar o Domínio do Canadá em 1867.
Um campo de internamento foi montado no Immigration Hall em Montreal de agosto de 1914 a novembro de 1918. 
Após a Primeira Guerra Mundial , o movimento de proibição nos Estados Unidos fez com que Montreal se tornasse um destino para americanos em busca de álcool .  O desemprego permaneceu alto na cidade e foi agravado pela Queda da Bolsa de Valores de 1929 e pela Grande Depressão . 
Durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial , o prefeito Camillien Houde protestou contra o recrutamento e pediu aos montrealenses que desobedecessem ao registro do governo federal de todos os homens e mulheres.  O governo federal, parte das forças aliadas , ficou furioso com a posição de Houde e o manteve em um campo de prisioneiros até 1944.  Naquele ano, o governo decidiu instituir o recrutamento para expandir as forças armadas e lutar contra os poderes do Eixo . (Veja Crise de Conscrição de 1944. ) 
Montreal foi a residência oficial da família real de Luxemburgo no exílio durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial. 
Em 1951, a população de Montreal ultrapassou um milhão.  No entanto, o crescimento de Toronto começou a desafiar o status de Montreal como a capital econômica do Canadá. De fato, o volume de ações negociadas na Bolsa de Valores de Toronto já havia superado o negociado na Bolsa de Valores de Montreal na década de 1940.  O Saint Lawrence Seaway foi inaugurado em 1959, permitindo que os navios contornassem Montreal. Com o tempo, esse desenvolvimento levou ao fim do domínio econômico da cidade, à medida que as empresas se mudaram para outras áreas.  Durante a década de 1960, houve um crescimento contínuo como os arranha-céus mais altos do Canadá, novas vias expressas e o sistema de metrô conhecido como Metro de Montrealforam concluídos durante este tempo. Montreal também sediou a Feira Mundial de 1967, mais conhecida como Expo67.
A década de 1970 marcou o início de um período de mudanças sociais e políticas abrangentes, decorrentes em grande parte das preocupações da maioria de língua francesa com a preservação de sua cultura e língua, dada a predominância tradicional da minoria anglo- canadense na área de negócios.  A crise de outubro e a eleição de 1976 do Parti Québécois , que apoiava o status de soberano para Quebec, resultou na saída de muitas empresas e pessoas da cidade.  Em 1976, Montreal sediou os Jogos Olímpicos de verão . Enquanto o evento trouxe prestígio e atenção internacional para a cidade, o Estádio Olímpicoconstruído para o evento resultou em uma dívida enorme para a cidade.  Durante a década de 1980 e início de 1990, Montreal experimentou uma taxa de crescimento econômico mais lenta do que muitas outras grandes cidades canadenses. Montreal foi o local do massacre da École Polytechnique em 1989 , um dos piores tiroteios em massa do Canadá , onde Marc Lépine , de 25 anos, atirou e matou 14 pessoas, todas mulheres, e feriu outras 14 pessoas antes de se matar na École Polytechnique .
Montreal foi fundida com os 27 municípios vizinhos na Ilha de Montreal em 1º de janeiro de 2002, criando uma cidade unificada abrangendo toda a ilha. Houve resistência substancial dos subúrbios à fusão, com a percepção de que ela foi forçada nos subúrbios predominantemente ingleses pelo Parti Québécois. Como esperado, essa mudança se mostrou impopular e várias fusões foram rescindidas posteriormente. Vários ex-municípios, totalizando 13% da população da ilha, votaram pela saída da cidade unificada em referendos separadosem junho de 2004. A cisão ocorreu em 1º de janeiro de 2006, deixando 15 municípios da ilha, incluindo Montreal. Os municípios cindidos permanecem afiliados à cidade por meio de um conselho de aglomeração que coleta impostos deles para pagar por diversos serviços compartilhados.  As fusões de 2002 não foram as primeiras na história da cidade. Montreal anexou 27 outras cidades, vilas e aldeias começando com Hochelaga em 1883, com a última antes de 2002 sendo Pointe-aux-Trembles em 1982.
O século 21 trouxe consigo um renascimento da paisagem econômica e cultural da cidade. A construção de novos arranha-céus residenciais, dois super-hospitais (o Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal e o McGill University Health Centre ), a criação do Quartier des Spectacles , a reconstrução do Turcot Interchange , a reconfiguração dos intercâmbios Decarie e Dorval, construção da nova Réseau électrique métropolitain , gentrificação de Griffintown , extensões da linha do metrô e compra de novos vagões do metrô, revitalização completa e expansão do Aeroporto Internacional de Trudeau , conclusão doA Quebec Autoroute 30 , a reconstrução da Ponte Champlain e a construção de uma nova ponte com pedágio para Laval estão ajudando Montreal a continuar crescendo. [ citação necessária ]
Geografia [ editar ]
Montreal fica no sudoeste da província de Quebec. A cidade cobre a maior parte da Ilha de Montreal, na confluência dos rios Saint Lawrence e Ottawa. O porto de Montreal fica em uma extremidade do Saint Lawrence Seaway, a passagem do rio que se estende dos Grandes Lagos ao Atlântico.  Montreal é definida por sua localização entre o rio Saint Lawrence ao sul e a Rivière des Prairies ao norte. A cidade deve o seu nome à característica geográfica mais proeminente da ilha, uma colina de três cabeças chamada Mount Royal, com 232 m (761 pés) acima do nível do mar . 
Montreal está no centro da Comunidade Metropolitana de Montreal e faz fronteira com a cidade de Laval ao norte; Longueuil , Saint-Lambert , Brossard e outros municípios ao sul; Repentigny a leste e os municípios da Ilha Ocidental a oeste. Os enclaves anglófonos de Westmount , Montreal West , Hampstead , Côte Saint-Luc , a cidade de Mount Royal e o enclave francófono Montreal East estão todos rodeados por Montreal. 
Clima [ editar ]
Montreal é classificada como um clima continental úmido de verão quente ( classificação climática de Köppen : Dfb) no aeroporto de Montreal-Trudeau e um clima continental úmido de verão quente (classificação climática de Köppen: Dfa) na Universidade McGill.   Os verões são de calor moderado a quente e úmido com uma média máxima diária de 26 a 27 ° C (79 a 81 ° F) em julho; temperaturas acima de 30 ° C (86 ° F) são comuns. Por outro lado, as frentes frias podem trazer um clima frio, seco e ventoso no início e no final do verão.
O inverno traz frio, neve, vento e, às vezes, gelo, com uma média diária variando de -10,5 a -9 ° C (13,1 a 15,8 ° F) em janeiro. No entanto, alguns dias de inverno ficam acima de zero, permitindo chover em média 4 dias em janeiro e fevereiro cada. Normalmente, a neve cobrindo parte ou todo o solo descoberto dura em média da primeira ou segunda semana de dezembro até a última semana de março.  Embora a temperatura do ar não caia abaixo de −30 ° C (−22 ° F) a cada ano,  a sensação térmica geralmente faz com que a temperatura pareça tão baixa para a pele exposta.
A primavera e o outono são agradavelmente amenos, mas sujeitos a mudanças drásticas de temperatura; a primavera ainda mais do que o outono.  Ondas de calor no final da temporada, bem como " verões indianos " são possíveis. Tempestades de neve no início e no final da temporada podem ocorrer em novembro e março, e mais raramente em abril. Montreal geralmente fica sem neve do final de abril ao final de outubro. No entanto, a neve pode cair do início a meados de outubro, bem como do início a meados de maio, em raras ocasiões.
A temperatura mais baixa nos livros da Environment Canada foi −37,8 ° C (−36 ° F) em 15 de janeiro de 1957, e a mais alta foi 37,6 ° C (99,7 ° F) em 1 ° de agosto de 1975, ambas no Aeroporto Internacional Dorval . 
Antes da manutenção de registros meteorológicos modernos (que remonta a 1871 para McGill),  uma temperatura mínima quase 5 graus mais baixa foi registrada às 7 da manhã em 10 de janeiro de 1859, onde registrou-se a −42 ° C (−44 ° F) . 
A precipitação anual é de cerca de 1.000 mm (39 pol.), Incluindo uma média de cerca de 210 cm (83 pol.) De neve, que ocorre de novembro a março. Tempestades são comuns no período que começa no final da primavera, passando pelo verão até o início do outono; além disso, as tempestades tropicais ou seus remanescentes podem causar fortes chuvas e vendavais. Montreal tem em média 2.050 horas de sol por ano, com o verão sendo a estação mais ensolarada, embora ligeiramente mais úmida do que os outros em termos de precipitação total - principalmente de tempestades. 
|Dados climáticos para Montreal ( Aeroporto Internacional de Montreal-Trudeau ), normais 1981-2010, extremos 1941-presente|
|Grave umidex alto||13,5||14,7||28,0||33,8||41,0||45,0||45,8||46,8||42,8||33,5||24,6||18,1||46,8|
|Registro de alta ° C (° F)||13,9 |
|Média alta ° C (° F)||-5,3 |
|Média diária ° C (° F)||-9,7 |
|Média baixa ° C (° F)||-14 |
|Grave ° C baixo (° F)||−37,8 |
|Grave vento fraco||-49,1||-46||-42,9||-26,3||-9,9||0,0||0,0||0,0||-4,8||-10,9||-30,7||-46||-49,1|
|Precipitação média mm (polegadas)||77,2 |
( 39,38 )
|Precipitação média mm (polegadas)||27,3 |
|Queda de neve média cm (polegadas)||49,5 |
|Dias de precipitação média (≥ 0,2 mm)||16,7||13,7||13,6||12,9||13,6||13,3||12,3||11,6||11,1||13,3||14,8||16,3||163,3|
|Dias chuvosos médios (≥ 0,2 mm)||4,2||4,0||6,9||11,6||13,6||13,3||12,3||11,6||11,1||13,0||11,7||5,9||119,1|
|Média de dias de neve (≥ 0,2 cm)||15,3||12,1||9,1||3,2||0,07||0,0||0,0||0,0||0,0||0,72||5,4||13,0||58,9|
|Média de humidade relativa (%) (a 1500)||68,1||63,4||58,3||51,9||51,4||55,3||56,1||56,8||59,7||62,0||68,0||71,4||60,2|
|Média de horas de sol mensais||101,2||127,8||164,3||178,3||228,9||240,3||271,5||246,3||182,2||143,5||83,6||83,6||2.051,3|
|Porcentagem de luz do sol possível||35,7||43,7||44,6||44,0||49,6||51,3||57,3||56,3||48,3||42,2||29,2||30,7||44,4|
|Índice ultravioleta médio||1||2||3||5||6||7||7||7||5||3||1||1||4|
|Fonte: Environment Canada   e Weather Atlas |
|Dados climáticos para a McGill University ( McTavish ), 1971-2000 normais, extremos 1871-presente [nota 1]|
|Registro de alta ° C (° F)||12,8 |
|Média alta ° C (° F)||-5,4 |
|Média diária ° C (° F)||-8,9 |
|Média baixa ° C (° F)||-12,4 |
|Grave ° C baixo (° F)||−33,5 |
|Precipitação média mm (polegadas)||73,6 |
|Precipitação média mm (polegadas)||28,4 |
|Queda de neve média cm (polegadas)||45,9 |
|Dias de precipitação média (≥ 0,2 mm)||15,8||12,8||13,6||12,5||12,9||13,8||12,3||13,4||12,7||13,1||15.0||16,2||163,9|
|Dias chuvosos médios (≥ 0,2 mm)||4,3||4,0||7,4||10,9||12,8||13,8||12,3||13,4||12,7||12,7||11,5||6,5||122,2|
|Média de dias de neve (≥ 0,2 cm)||13,6||11,1||8,3||3,0||0,14||0,0||0,0||0,0||0,0||0,62||5,3||12,0||53,9|
|Média de horas de sol mensais||99,2||119,5||158,8||181,7||229,8||250,1||271,6||230,7||174,1||138,6||80,4||80,7||2.015,2|
|Fonte: Environment Canada ,        registro máximo  |
Arquitetura [ editar ]
For over a century and a half, Montreal was the industrial and financial centre of Canada. This legacy has left a variety of buildings including factories, elevators, warehouses, mills, and refineries, that today provide an invaluable insight into the city's history, especially in the downtown area and the Old Port area. There are 50 National Historic Sites of Canada, more than any other city.
Some of the city's earliest still-standing buildings date back to the late 17th and early 18th centuries. Although most are clustered around the Old Montreal area, such as the Sulpician Seminary adjacent to Notre Dame Basilica that dates back to 1687, and Château Ramezay, which was built in 1705, examples of early colonial architecture are dotted throughout the city. Situated in Lachine, the Le Ber-Le Moyne House is the oldest complete building in the city, built between 1669 and 1671. In Point St. Charles visitors can see the Maison Saint-Gabriel, which can trace its history back to 1698. There are many historic buildings in Old Montreal in their original form: Notre Dame of Montreal Basilica, Bonsecours Market, and the 19th‑century headquarters of all major Canadian banks on St. James Street (French: Rue Saint Jacques). Montreal's earliest buildings are characterized by their uniquely French influence and grey stone construction.
Saint Joseph's Oratory, completed in 1967, Ernest Cormier's Art Deco Université de Montréal main building, the landmark Place Ville Marie office tower, the controversial Olympic Stadium and surrounding structures, are but a few notable examples of the city's 20th-century architecture. Pavilions designed for the 1967 International and Universal Exposition, popularly known as Expo 67, featured a wide range of architectural designs. Though most pavilions were temporary structures, several have become landmarks, including Buckminster Fuller's geodesic dome U.S. Pavilion, now the Montreal Biosphere, and Moshe Safdie's striking Habitat 67 apartment complex.
The Montreal Metro has public artwork by some of the biggest names in Quebec culture.
In 2006 Montreal was named a UNESCO City of Design, only one of three design capitals of the world (the others being Berlin and Buenos Aires). This distinguished title recognizes Montreal's design community. Since 2005 the city has been home for the International Council of Graphic Design Associations (Icograda); the International Design Alliance (IDA).
The Underground City (officially RESO) is an important tourist attraction. It is the set of interconnected shopping complexes (both above and below ground). This impressive network connects pedestrian thoroughfares to universities, as well as hotels, restaurants, bistros, subway stations and more, in and around downtown with 32 km (20 mi) of tunnels over 12 km2 (4.6 sq mi) of the most densely populated part of Montreal.
The city is composed of 19 large boroughs, subdivided into neighbourhoods.The boroughs are: Côte-des-Neiges–Notre-Dame-de-Grace, The Plateau Mount Royal, Outremont and Ville Marie in the centre; Mercier–Hochelaga-Maisonneuve, Rosemont–La Petite-Patrie and Villeray–Saint-Michel–Parc-Extension in the east; Anjou, Montréal-Nord, Rivière-des-Prairies–Pointe-aux-Trembles and Saint-Leonard in the northeast; Ahuntsic-Cartierville, L'Île-Bizard–Sainte-Geneviève, Pierrefonds-Roxboro and Saint-Laurent in the northwest; and Lachine, LaSalle, The South West and Verdun in the south.
Many of these boroughs were independent cities that were forced to be merged with Montreal in January 2002 following the 2002 municipal reorganization of Montreal.
The borough with the most neighbourhoods is Ville Marie, which includes downtown, the historical district of Old Montreal, Chinatown, the Gay Village, the Latin Quarter, the gentrified Quartier international and Cité Multimédia as well as the Quartier des Spectacles which is under development. Other neighbourhoods of interest in the borough include the affluent Golden Square Mile neighbourhood at the foot of Mount Royal and the Shaughnessy Village/Concordia U area home to thousands of students at Concordia University. The borough also comprises most of Mount Royal Park, Saint Helen's Island, and Notre-Dame Island.
The Plateau Mount Royal borough was a working class francophone area. The largest neighbourhood is the Plateau (not to be confused with the whole borough), which is undergoing considerable gentrification, and a 2001 study deemed it as Canada's most creative neighbourhood because artists comprise 8% of its labour force. The neighbourhood of Mile End in the northwestern part of the borough has been a very multicultural area of the city, and features two of Montreal's well-known bagel establishments, St-Viateur Bagel and Fairmount Bagel. The McGill Ghetto is in the extreme southwestern portion of the borough, its name being derived from the fact that it is home to thousands of McGill University students and faculty members.
The South West borough was home to much of the city's industry during the late 19th and early-to-mid 20th century. The borough included Goose Village and is home to the traditionally working-class Irish neighbourhoods of Griffintown and Point Saint Charles as well as the low-income neighbourhoods of Saint Henri and Little Burgundy.
Other notable neighbourhoods include the multicultural areas of Notre-Dame-de-Grâce and Côte-des-Neiges in the Côte-des-Neiges–Notre-Dame-de-Grace borough, and Little Italy in the borough of Rosemont–La Petite-Patrie and Hochelaga-Maisonneuve, home of the Olympic Stadium in the borough of Mercier–Hochelaga-Maisonneuve.
|Population (2016) ||Density |
inhabitants/ Square kilometre
|Average rent |
Old Montreal is a historic area southeast of downtown containing many attractions such as the Old Port of Montreal, Place Jacques-Cartier, Montreal City Hall, the Bonsecours Market, Place d'Armes, Pointe-à-Callière Museum, the Notre-Dame de Montréal Basilica, and the Montreal Science Centre.
Architecture and cobbled streets in Old Montreal have been maintained or restored. Old Montreal is accessible from the downtown core via the underground city and is served by several STM bus routes and Metro stations, ferries to the South Shore and a network of bicycle paths.
The riverside area adjacent to Old Montreal is known as the Old Port. The Old Port was the site of the Port of Montreal, but its shipping operations have been moved to a larger site downstream, leaving the former location as a recreational and historical area maintained by Parks Canada. The new Port of Montreal is Canada's largest container port and the largest inland port on Earth.
The mountain is the site of Mount Royal Park, one of Montreal's largest greenspaces. The park, most of which is wooded, was designed by Frederick Law Olmsted, who also designed New York's Central Park, and was inaugurated in 1876.
The park contains two belvederes, the more prominent of which is the Kondiaronk Belvedere, a semicircular plaza with a chalet overlooking Downtown Montreal. Other features of the park are Beaver Lake, a small man-made lake, a short ski slope, a sculpture garden, Smith House, an interpretive centre, and a well-known monument to Sir George-Étienne Cartier. The park hosts athletic, tourist and cultural activities.
The mountain is home to two major cemeteries, Notre-Dame-des-Neiges (founded in 1854) and Mount Royal (1852). Mount Royal Cemetery is a 165 acres (67 ha) terraced cemetery on the north slope of Mount Royal in the borough of Outremont. Notre Dame des Neiges Cemetery is much larger, predominantly French-Canadian and officially Catholic. More than 900,000 people are buried there.
Mount Royal Cemetery contains more than 162,000 graves and is the final resting place for a number of notable Canadians. It includes a veterans section with several soldiers who were awarded the British Empire's highest military honour, the Victoria Cross. In 1901 the Mount Royal Cemetery Company established the first crematorium in Canada.
The first cross on the mountain was placed there in 1643 by Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve, the founder of the city, in fulfilment of a vow he made to the Virgin Mary when praying to her to stop a disastrous flood. Today, the mountain is crowned by a 31.4 m-high (103 ft) illuminated cross, installed in 1924 by the John the Baptist Society and now owned by the city. It was converted to fibre optic light in 1992. The new system can turn the lights red, blue, or purple, the last of which is used as a sign of mourning between the death of the Pope and the election of the next.
|Based on current city limits|
According to Statistics Canada, at the 2016 Canadian census the city had 1,704,694 inhabitants. A total of 4,098,927 lived in the Montreal Census Metropolitan Area (CMA) at the same 2016 census, up from 3,934,078 at the 2011 census (within 2011 CMA boundaries), which is a population growth of 4.19% from 2011 to 2016. In 2015, the Greater Montreal population was estimated at 4,060,700. According to StatsCan, by 2030, the Greater Montreal Area is expected to number 5,275,000 with 1,722,000 being visible minorities.In the 2016 census, children under 14 years of age (691,345) constituted 16.9%, while inhabitants over 65 years of age (671,690) numbered 16.4% of the total population of the CMA.
People of European ethnicities formed the largest cluster of ethnic groups. The largest reported European ethnicities in the 2006 census were French 23%, Italians 10%, Irish 5%, English 4%, Scottish 3%, and Spanish 2%.Some 26% of the population of Montreal and 16.5% that of Greater Montreal, are members of a visible minority (non-white) group, up from 5.2% in 1981.
Visible minorities comprised 34.2% of the population in the 2016 census. The five most numerous visible minorities are Black Canadians (10.3%), Arab Canadians, mainly Lebanese Canadians (7.3%), Latin Americans (4.1%), South Asian Canadian (3.3%), and Chinese Canadians (3.3%). Visible minorities are defined by the Canadian Employment Equity Act as "persons, other than Aboriginals, who are non-white in colour".
In terms of mother language (first language learned), the 2006 census reported that in the Greater Montreal Area, 66.5% spoke French as a first language, followed by English at 13.2%, while 0.8% spoke both as a first language. The remaining 22.5% of Montreal-area residents are allophones, speaking languages including Italian (3.5%), Arabic (3.1%), Spanish (2.6%), Creole (1.3%), Chinese (1.2%), Greek (1.2%), Portuguese (0.8%), Berber language (0.8%), Romanian (0.7%), Vietnamese (0.7%), and Russian (0.7%). In terms of additional languages spoken, a unique feature of Montreal among Canadian cities, noted by Statistics Canada, is the working knowledge of both French and English possessed by most of its residents.
|Canada Census Mother Tongue – Montreal, Quebec|
French and English
|Year||Responses||Count||Trend||Pop %||Count||Trend||Pop %||Count||Trend||Pop %||Count||Trend||Pop %|
|Religion in Montreal (2011)|
The Greater Montreal Area is predominantly Roman Catholic; however, weekly attendance in Quebec is among the lowest in Canada. Historically Montreal has been a centre of Catholicism in North America with its numerous seminaries and churches, including the Notre-Dame Basilica, the Cathédrale Marie-Reine-du-Monde, and Saint Joseph's Oratory.
Some 65.8% of the total population is Christian, largely Roman Catholic (52.8%), primarily because of descendants of original French settlers, and others of Italian and Irish origins. Protestants which include Anglican Church in Canada, United Church of Canada, Lutheran, owing to British and German immigration, and other denominations number 5.90%, with a further 3.7% consisting mostly of Orthodox Christians, fuelled by a large Greek population. There is also a number of Russian and Ukrainian Orthodox parishes.
Islam is the largest non-Christian religious group, with 154,540 members, the second-largest concentration of Muslims in Canada at 9.6%. The Jewish community in Montreal has a population of 90,780. In cities such as Côte Saint-Luc and Hampstead, Jewish people constitute the majority, or a substantial part of the population. As recently as 1971 the Jewish community in Greater Montreal was as high as 109,480. Political and economic uncertainties led many to leave Montreal and the province of Quebec.
Montreal has the second-largest economy of Canadian cities based on GDP and the largest in Quebec. In 2014, Metropolitan Montreal was responsible for CA$118.7 billion of Quebec's CA$340.7 billion GDP. The city is today an important centre of commerce, finance, industry, technology, culture, world affairs and is the headquarters of the Montreal Exchange. In recent decades, the city was widely seen as weaker than that of Toronto and other major Canadian cities, but it has recently experienced a revival.
Industries include aerospace, electronic goods, pharmaceuticals, printed goods, software engineering, telecommunications, textile and apparel manufacturing, tobacco, petrochemicals, and transportation. The service sector is also strong and includes civil, mechanical and process engineering, finance, higher education, and research and development. In 2002, Montreal was the fourth-largest centre in North America in terms of aerospace jobs.The Port of Montreal is one of the largest inland ports in the world handling 26 million tonnes of cargo annually. As one of the most important ports in Canada, it remains a transshipment point for grain, sugar, petroleum products, machinery, and consumer goods. For this reason, Montreal is the railway hub of Canada and has always been an extremely important rail city; it is home to the headquarters of the Canadian National Railway, and was home to the headquarters of the Canadian Pacific Railway until 1995.
The headquarters of the Canadian Space Agency is in Longueuil, southeast of Montreal. Montreal also hosts the headquarters of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO, a United Nations body); the World Anti-Doping Agency (an Olympic body); the Airports Council International (the association of the world's airports – ACI World); the International Air Transport Association (IATA), IATA Operational Safety Audit and the International Gay and Lesbian Chamber of Commerce (IGLCC), as well as some other international organizations in various fields.
Montreal is a centre of film and television production. The headquarters of Alliance Films and five studios of the Academy Award-winning documentary producer National Film Board of Canada are in the city, as well as the head offices of Telefilm Canada, the national feature-length film and television funding agency and Télévision de Radio-Canada. Given its eclectic architecture and broad availability of film services and crew members, Montreal is a popular filming location for feature-length films, and sometimes stands in for European locations. The city is also home to many recognized cultural, film and music festivals (Just For Laughs, Just For Laughs Gags, Montreal International Jazz Festival, and others), which contribute significantly to its economy. It is also home to one of the world's largest cultural enterprises, the Cirque du Soleil.
Montreal is also a global hub for artificial intelligence research with many companies involved in this sector, such as Facebook AI Research (FAIR), Microsoft Research, Google Brain, DeepMind, Samsung Research and Thales Group (cortAIx). The city is also home to Mila (research institute), an artificial intelligence research institute with over 500 researchers specializing in the field of deep learning, the largest of its kind in the world.
The video game industry has been booming in Montreal since 1997, coinciding with the opening of Ubisoft Montreal. Recently, the city has attracted world leading game developers and publishers studios such as EA, Eidos Interactive, BioWare, Artificial Mind and Movement, Strategy First, THQ, Gameloft mainly because of the quality of local specialized labour, and tax credits offered to the corporations. Recently, Warner Bros. Interactive Entertainment, a division of Warner Bros., announced that it would open a video game studio. Relatively new to the video game industry, it will be Warner Bros. first studio opened, not purchased, and will develop games for such Warner Bros. franchises as Batman and other games from their DC Comics portfolio. The studio will create 300 jobs.
Montreal plays an important role in the finance industry. The sector employs approximately 100,000 people in the Greater Montreal Area. As of March 2018, Montreal is ranked in the 12th position in the Global Financial Centres Index, a ranking of the competitiveness of financial centres around the world. The city is home to the Montreal Exchange, the oldest stock exchange in Canada and the only financial derivatives exchange in the country. The corporate headquarters of the Bank of Montreal and Royal Bank of Canada, two of the biggest banks in Canada, were in Montreal. While both banks moved their headquarters to Toronto, Ontario, their legal corporate offices remain in Montreal. The city is home to head offices of two smaller banks, National Bank of Canada and Laurentian Bank of Canada. The Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec, an institutional investor managing assets totalling $248 billion CAD, has its main business office in Montreal. Many foreign subsidiaries operating in the financial sector also have offices in Montreal, including HSBC, Aon, Société Générale, BNP Paribas and AXA.
Several companies are headquartered in Greater Montreal Area including Rio Tinto Alcan, Bombardier Inc., Canadian National Railway, CGI Group, Air Canada, Air Transat, CAE, Saputo, Cirque du Soleil, Stingray Group, Quebecor, Ultramar, Kruger Inc., Jean Coutu Group, Uniprix, Proxim, Domtar, Le Château, Power Corporation, Cellcom Communications, Bell Canada. Standard Life, Hydro-Québec, AbitibiBowater, Pratt and Whitney Canada, Molson, Tembec, Canada Steamship Lines, Fednav, Alimentation Couche-Tard, SNC-Lavalin, MEGA Brands, Aeroplan, Agropur, Metro Inc., Laurentian Bank of Canada, National Bank of Canada, Transat A.T., Via Rail, GardaWorld, Novacam Technologies, SOLABS, Dollarama, Rona and the Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec.
The Montreal Oil Refining Centre is the largest refining centre in Canada, with companies like Petro-Canada, Ultramar, Gulf Oil, Petromont, Ashland Canada, Parachem Petrochemical, Coastal Petrochemical, Interquisa (Cepsa) Petrochemical, Nova Chemicals, and more. Shell decided to close the refining centre in 2010, throwing hundreds out of work and causing an increased dependence on foreign refineries for eastern Canada.
Montreal was referred to as "Canada's Cultural Capital" by Monocle magazine. The city is Canada's centre for French-language television productions, radio, theatre, film, multimedia, and print publishing. Montreal's many cultural communities have given it a distinct local culture.
Being at the confluence of the French and the English traditions, Montreal has developed a unique and distinguished cultural face. The city has produced much talent in the fields of visual arts, theatre, dance, and music, with a tradition of producing both jazz and rock music. Another distinctive characteristic of cultural life is the vibrancy of its downtown, particularly during summer, prompted by cultural and social events, including its more than 100 annual festivals, the largest being the Montreal International Jazz Festival which is the largest jazz festival in the world. Other popular events include the Just for Laughs (largest comedy festival in the world), Montreal World Film Festival, Les FrancoFolies de Montréal, Nuits d'Afrique, Pop Montreal, Divers/Cité, Fierté Montréal and the Montreal Fireworks Festival, and many smaller festivals.
A cultural heart of classical art and the venue for many summer festivals, the Place des Arts is a complex of different concert and theatre halls surrounding a large square in the eastern portion of downtown. Place des Arts has the headquarters of one of the world's foremost orchestras, the Montreal Symphony Orchestra. The Orchestre Métropolitain du Grand Montréal and the chamber orchestra I Musici de Montréal are two other well-regarded Montreal orchestras. Also performing at Place des Arts are the Opéra de Montréal and the city's chief ballet company Les Grands Ballets Canadiens. Internationally recognized avant-garde dance troupes such as Compagnie Marie Chouinard, La La La Human Steps, O Vertigo, and the Fondation Jean-Pierre Perreault have toured the world and worked with international popular artists on videos and concerts. The unique choreography of these troupes has paved the way for the success of the world-renowned Cirque du Soleil.
Nicknamed la ville aux cent clochers (the city of a hundred steeples), Montreal is renowned for its churches. There are an estimated 600 churches on the island, with 450 of them dating back to the 1800s or earlier. Mark Twain noted, "This is the first time I was ever in a city where you couldn't throw a brick without breaking a church window." The city has four Roman Catholic basilicas: Mary, Queen of the World Cathedral, the aforementioned Notre-Dame Basilica, St Patrick's Basilica, and Saint Joseph's Oratory. The Oratory is the largest church in Canada, with the second largest copper dome in the world, after Saint Peter's Basilica in Rome.
The most popular sport is ice hockey. The professional hockey team, the Montreal Canadiens, is one of the Original Six teams of the National Hockey League (NHL), and has won an NHL-record 24 Stanley Cup championships. The Canadiens' most recent Stanley Cup victory came in 1993. They have major rivalries with the Toronto Maple Leafs and Boston Bruins, both of which are also Original Six hockey teams, and with the Ottawa Senators, the closest team geographically. The Canadiens have played at the Bell Centre since 1996. Prior to that they played at the Montreal Forum.
The Montreal Alouettes of the Canadian Football League (CFL) play at Molson Stadium on the campus of McGill University for their regular-season games. Late season and playoff games are played at the much larger, enclosed Olympic Stadium, which also played host to the 2008 Grey Cup. The Alouettes have won the Grey Cup seven times, most recently in 2010. The Alouettes has had two periods on hiatus. During the second one, the Montreal Machine played in the World League of American Football in 1991 and 1992. The McGill Redmen, Concordia Stingers, and Université de Montréal Carabins play in the CIS university football league.
Montreal has a storied baseball history. The city was the home of the minor-league Montreal Royals of the International League until 1960. In 1946 Jackie Robinson broke the baseball colour barrier with the Royals in an emotionally difficult year; Robinson was forever grateful for the local fans' fervent support. Major League Baseball came to town in the form of the Montreal Expos in 1969. They played their games at Jarry Park until moving into Olympic Stadium in 1977. After 36 years in Montreal, the team relocated to Washington, D.C. in 2005 and re-branded themselves as the Washington Nationals. Discussions about MLB returning to Montreal remain active.
CF Montréal (formerly known as the Montreal Impact) are the city's professional soccer team. They play at a soccer-specific stadium called Saputo Stadium. They joined North America's biggest soccer league, Major League Soccer in 2012. The Montreal games of the 2007 FIFA U-20 World Cup and 2014 FIFA U-20 Women's World Cup were held at Olympic Stadium, and the venue hosted Montreal games in the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup.
Montreal is the site of a high-profile auto racing event each year: the Canadian Grand Prix of Formula One (F1) racing. This race takes place on the famous Circuit Gilles Villeneuve on Île Notre-Dame. In 2009, the race was dropped from the Formula One calendar, to the chagrin of some fans, but the Canadian Grand Prix returned to the Formula 1 calendar in 2010. The Circuit Gilles Villeneuve also hosted a round of the Champ Car World Series from 2002 to 2007, and was home to the NAPA Auto Parts 200, a NASCAR Nationwide Series race, and the Montréal 200, a Grand Am Rolex Sports Car Series race.
Uniprix Stadium, built in 1993 on the site of Jarry Park, is used for the Rogers Cup men's and women's tennis tournaments. The men's tournament is a Masters 1000 event on the ATP Tour, and the women's tournament is a Premier tournament on the WTA Tour. The men's and women's tournaments alternate between Montreal and Toronto every year.
Montreal was the host of the 1976 Summer Olympic Games. The stadium cost $1.5 billion; with interest that figure ballooned to nearly $3 billion, and was only paid off in December 2006. Montreal also hosted the first ever World Outgames in the summer of 2006, attracting over 16,000 participants engaged in 35 sporting activities.
Montreal was the host city for the 17th unicycling world championship and convention (UNICON) in August 2014.
Montreal and the National Basketball Association (NBA) have been in early discussions for an expansion franchise located in the city.
|Montreal Canadiens||NHL||Ice hockey||Bell Centre||1909||24|
|Montreal Alouettes||CFL||Canadian football||Percival Molson Memorial Stadium|
|CF Montréal||MLS||Soccer||Saputo Stadium||2012||0|
Montreal is Canada's second-largest media market, and the centre of francophone Canada's media industry.
There are four over-the-air English-language television stations: CBMT-DT (CBC Television), CFCF-DT (CTV), CKMI-DT (Global) and CJNT-DT (Citytv). There are also five over-the-air French-language television stations: CBFT-DT (Ici Radio-Canada), CFTM-DT (TVA), CFJP-DT (V), CIVM-DT (Télé-Québec), and CFTU-DT (Canal Savoir).
Montreal has three daily newspapers, the English-language Montreal Gazette and the French-language Le Journal de Montréal, and Le Devoir; another French-language daily, La Presse, became an online daily in 2018. There are two free French dailies, Métro and 24 Heures. Montreal has numerous weekly tabloids and community newspapers serving various neighbourhoods, ethnic groups and schools.
The head of the city government in Montreal is the mayor, who is first among equals in the city council.
The city council is a democratically elected institution and is the final decision-making authority in the city, although much power is centralized in the executive committee. The council consists of 65 members from all boroughs. The council has jurisdiction over many matters, including public security, agreements with other governments, subsidy programs, the environment, urban planning, and a three-year capital expenditure program. The council is required to supervise, standardize or approve certain decisions made by the borough councils.
Reporting directly to the council, the executive committee exercises decision-making powers similar to those of the cabinet in a parliamentary system and is responsible for preparing various documents including budgets and by-laws, submitted to the council for approval. The decision-making powers of the executive committee cover, in particular, the awarding of contracts or grants, the management of human and financial resources, supplies and buildings. It may also be assigned further powers by the city council.
Standing committees are the prime instruments for public consultation. They are responsible for the public study of pending matters and for making the appropriate recommendations to the council. They also review the annual budget forecasts for departments under their jurisdiction. A public notice of meeting is published in both French and English daily newspapers at least seven days before each meeting. All meetings include a public question period. The standing committees, of which there are seven, have terms lasting two years. In addition, the City Council may decide to create special committees at any time. Each standing committee is made up of seven to nine members, including a chairman and a vice-chairman. The members are all elected municipal officers, with the exception of a representative of the government of Quebec on the public security committee.
The city is only one component of the larger Montreal Metropolitan Community (Communauté Métropolitaine de Montréal, CMM), which is in charge of planning, coordinating, and financing economic development, public transportation, garbage collection and waste management, etc., across the metropolitan area. The president of the CMM is the mayor of Montreal. The CMM covers 4,360 km2 (1,680 sq mi), with 3.6 million inhabitants in 2006.
Montreal is the seat of the judicial district of Montreal, which includes the city and the other communities on the island.
Main Article: SPVM
Law enforcement on the island itself is provided by the Service de Police de la Ville de Montréal, or the SPVM for short.
The overall crime rate in Montreal has declined, with a few notable exceptions, with murders at the lowest rate since 1972 (23 murders in 2016). Sex crimes have increased 14.5 per cent between 2015 and 2016 and fraud cases have increased by 13 per cent over the same period. The major criminal organizations active in Montreal are the Rizzuto crime family, Hells Angels and West End Gang.
The education system in Quebec is different from other systems in North America. Between high school (which ends at grade 11) and university students must go through an additional school called CEGEP. CEGEPs offer pre-university (2-years) and technical (3-years) programs. In Montreal, seventeen CEGEPs offer courses in French and five in English.
French-language elementary and secondary public schools in Montreal are operated by the Centre de services scolaire de Montréal (CSDM), Centre de services scolaire Marguerite-Bourgeoys and the Centre de services scolaire de la Pointe-de-l'Île.
English-language elementary and secondary public schools on Montreal Island are operated by the English Montreal School Board and the Lester B. Pearson School Board.
With four universities, seven other degree-awarding institutions, and 12 CEGEPs in an 8 km (5.0 mi) radius, Montreal has the highest concentration of post-secondary students of all major cities in North America (4.38 students per 100 residents, followed by Boston at 4.37 students per 100 residents).
Higher education (English)
- McGill University is one of Canada's leading post-secondary institutions, and widely regarded as a world-class institution. In 2015, McGill was ranked as the top University in Canada for the eleventh consecutive year by Macleans, and as the best University in Canada; 24th best University in the world, by the QS World University Rankings.
- Concordia University was created from the merger of Sir George Williams University and Loyola College in 1974. The university has been ranked as one of the most comprehensive universities in Canada by Macleans.
Higher education (French)
- Université de Montréal (UdeM) is the second largest research university in Canada and ranked as one of the top universities in Canada. Two separate institutions are affiliated to the university: the École Polytechnique de Montréal (School of Engineering) and HEC Montréal (School of Business). HEC Montreal was founded in 1907 and is considered as one of the best business schools in Canada.
- Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM) is the Montreal campus of Université du Québec. UQAM generally specializes in liberal-arts, although many programs related to the sciences are available.
- The Université du Québec network also has three separately run schools in Montréal, notably the École de technologie supérieure (ETS), the École nationale d'administration publique (ÉNAP) and the Institut national de la recherche scientifique (INRS).
- L'Institut de formation théologique de Montréal des Prêtres de Saint-Sulpice (IFTM) specializes in theology and philosophy.
- Conservatoire de musique du Québec à Montréal offers both a Bachelor and a Master program in classical music.
Additionally, two French-language universities, Université de Sherbrooke and Université Laval have campuses in the nearby suburb of Longueuil on Montreal's south shore. Also, l'Institut de pastorale des Dominicains is Montreal's university centre of Ottawa's Collège Universitaire Dominicain/Dominican University College. The Faculté de théologie évangélique is Nova Scotia's Acadia University Montreal based serving French Protestant community in Canada by offering both a Bachelor and a Master program in theology
Like many major cities, Montreal has a problem with vehicular traffic congestion. Commuting traffic from the cities and towns in the West Island (such as Dollard-des-Ormeaux and Pointe-Claire) is compounded by commuters entering the city that use twenty-four road crossings from numerous off-island suburbs on the North and South Shores. The width of the Saint Lawrence River has made the construction of fixed links to the south shore expensive and difficult. There are presently four road bridges (including two of the country's busiest) along with one bridge-tunnel, two railway bridges, and a Metro line. The far narrower Rivière des Prairies to the city's north, separating Montreal from Laval, is spanned by nine road bridges (seven to the city of Laval and two that span directly to the north shore) and a Metro line.
The island of Montreal is a hub for the Quebec Autoroute system, and is served by Quebec Autoroutes A-10 (known as the Bonaventure Expressway on the island of Montreal), A-15 (aka the Decarie Expressway south of the A-40 and the Laurentian Autoroute to the north of it), A-13 (aka Chomedey Autoroute), A-20, A-25, A-40 (part of the Trans-Canada Highway system, and known as "The Metropolitan" or simply "The Met" in its elevated mid-town section), A-520 and A-720 (aka the Ville-Marie Autoroute). Many of these Autoroutes are frequently congested at rush hour. However, in recent years, the government has acknowledged this problem and is working on long-term solutions to alleviate the congestion. One such example is the extension of Quebec Autoroute 30 on Montreal's south shore, which will serve as a bypass for trucks and intercity traffic.
Société de transport de Montréal
Public local transport is served by a network of buses, subways, and commuter trains that extend across and off the island. The subway and bus system are operated by the Société de transport de Montréal (STM, Montreal Transit Society). The STM bus network consists of 203 daytime and 23 nighttime routes. STM bus routes serve 1,347,900 passengers on an average weekday in 2010. It also provides adapted transport and wheelchair-accessible buses. The STM won the award of Outstanding Public Transit System in North America by the APTA in 2010. It was the first time a Canadian company won this prize.
The Metro was inaugurated in 1966 and has 68 stations on four lines. It is Canada's busiest subway system in total daily passenger usage, serving 1,050,800 passengers on an average weekday (as of Q1 2010). Each station was designed by different architects with individual themes and features original artwork, and the trains run on rubber tires, making the system quieter than most. The project was initiated by Montreal Mayor Jean Drapeau, who later brought the Summer Olympic Games to Montreal in 1976. The Metro system has long had a station on the South Shore in Longueuil, and in 2007 was extended to the city of Laval, north of Montreal, with three new stations. The metro has recently been modernizing its trains, purchasing new Azur models with inter-connected wagons.
Montreal has two international airports, one for passengers only, the other for cargo. Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport (also known as Dorval Airport) in the City of Dorval serves all commercial passenger traffic and is the headquarters of Air Canada and Air Transat. To the north of the city is Montreal Mirabel International Airport in Mirabel, which was envisioned as Montreal's primary airport but which now serves cargo flights along with MEDEVACs and general aviation and some passenger services. In 2018, Trudeau was the third busiest airport in Canada by passenger traffic and aircraft movements, handling 19.42 million passengers, and 240,159 aircraft movements. With 63% of its passengers being on non-domestic flights it has the largest percentage of international flights of any Canadian airport.
It is one of Air Canada's major hubs and operates on average approximately 2,400 flights per week between Montreal and 155 destinations, spread on five continents.
Airlines servicing Trudeau offer year-round non-stop flights to five continents, namely Africa, Asia, Europe, North America and South America. It is one of only two airports in Canada with direct flights to five continents or more.
Montreal-based Via Rail provides rail service to other cities in Canada, particularly to Quebec City and Toronto along the Quebec City – Windsor Corridor. Amtrak, the U.S. national passenger rail system, operates its Adirondack daily to New York. All intercity trains and most commuter trains operate out of Central Station.
Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR), headquartered in Calgary, Alberta, was founded here in 1881. Its corporate headquarters occupied Windsor Station at 910 Peel Street until 1995. With the Port of Montreal kept open year-round by icebreakers, lines to Eastern Canada became surplus, and now Montreal is the railway's eastern and intermodal freight terminus. CPR connects at Montreal with the Port of Montreal, the Delaware and Hudson Railway to New York, the Quebec Gatineau Railway to Quebec City and Buckingham, the Central Maine and Quebec Railway to Halifax, and CN Rail. The CPR's flagship train, The Canadian, ran daily from Windsor Station to Vancouver, but all passenger services have since been transferred to Via Rail Canada. Since 1990, The Canadian has terminated in Toronto.
Montreal-based Canadian National Railways (CN) was formed in 1919 by the Canadian government following a series of country-wide rail bankruptcies. It was formed from the Grand Trunk, Midland and Canadian Northern Railways, and has risen to become CPR's chief rival in freight carriage in Canada. Like the CPR, CN has divested itself of passenger services in favour of Via Rail Canada. CN's flagship train, the Super Continental, ran daily from Central Station to Vancouver and subsequently became a Via train in the late 1970s. It was eliminated in 1990 in favour of rerouting The Canadian.
The commuter rail system is managed and operated by Exo, and reaches the outlying areas of Greater Montreal with six lines. It carried an average of 79,000 daily passengers in 2014, making it the seventh busiest in North America following New York, Chicago, Toronto, Boston, Philadelphia, and Mexico City.
On 22 April 2016 the forthcoming automated rapid transit system, the Réseau express métropolitain, was unveiled. Groundbreaking occurred 12 April 2018, and construction of the 67-kilometre-long (42 mi) network – consisting of three branches, 26 stations, and the conversion of the region's busiest commuter railway – commenced the following month. To be opened in three phases as of 2021, the REM will be completed by mid-2023, becoming the fourth largest automated rapid transit network after the Dubai Metro, the Singapore Mass Rapid Transit, and the Vancouver SkyTrain. Most of it will be financed by pension fund manager Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec.
- Algiers, Algeria – 1999
- Brussels, Belgium
- Bucharest, Romania
- Busan, South Korea – 2000
- Dublin, Ireland – 2016
- Hanoi, Vietnam – 1997
- Hiroshima, Japan – 1998
- Lyon, France – 1979
- Manila, Philippines – 2005
- Port-au-Prince, Haiti – 1995
- San Salvador, El Salvador – 2001
- Shanghai, China – 1985
- Yerevan, Armenia – 1998
- Paris, France – 2006
- List of mayors of Montreal
- List of Montreal music venues
- List of shopping malls in Montreal
- List of tallest buildings in Montreal
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