Bandeira da Noruega

Da Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre
Ir para a navegação Ir para a pesquisa

Reino da Noruega
Flag of Norway.svg
UsarBandeira nacional e insígnia
Proporção8h11
Adotado13 de julho de 1821 ; 199 anos atrás (1821-07-13)
ProjetoUm campo vermelho carregado com um branco - fimbrado azul escuro transversal nórdica que se estende para as bordas; a parte vertical da cruz é deslocada para o lado da talha.
Projetado porFredrik Meltzer
Flag of Norway, state.svg
Bandeira variante do Reino da Noruega
UsarEstado e bandeira da guerra , estado e naval
Proporção16:27
Kongeflagget.svg
Bandeira variante do Reino da Noruega
NomeKongeflagget ("A Bandeira do Rei")
"Antigo Padrão Real" (1905)
UsarSporádico do século 13 ao 18 ( Reino da Noruega , União Kalmar , Dinamarca-Noruega )
1905 até o presente ( Reino da Noruega )
Proporção8h11
Adotado15 de novembro de 1905 ; 115 anos atrás (1905-11-15)
ProjetoO brasão de armas da Noruega em forma de banner com um leão dourado sobre um campo vermelho.
Projetado porVários (Anders Thiset, Eilif Peterssen , Gabinete da Noruega )

A bandeira da Noruega ( Bokmål : Norges flagg ; Nynorsk : Noregs flagg ) é vermelha com uma cruz escandinava azul índigo fimbriada em branco que se estende até as bordas da bandeira; a parte vertical da cruz é deslocada para o lado da talha no estilo da Dannebrog , a bandeira da Dinamarca . [1]

História [ editar ]

Uma representação originalmente de cerca de 1370 de um rei nórdico segurando os emblemas e brasões históricos da Dinamarca, Noruega e Suécia.
A primeira bandeira de guerra da Noruega independente, introduzida em 27 de fevereiro de 1814, substituída em 7 de março de 1815 por uma bandeira de guerra comum para a Suécia e a Noruega.
A bandeira nacional e mercante da Noruega (1844-1899), com a marca da união da Noruega e da Suécia , a "salada de arenque" .

É difícil estabelecer como era a primeira bandeira da Noruega . Durante os tempos antigos, os países não hasteavam bandeiras. Reis e outros governantes hastearam bandeiras, especialmente em batalha. Santo Olavo usou uma serpente dentro de uma marca branca na Batalha de Nesjar . Antes disso, o corvo ou dragão foi usado. Magnus the Good usava a mesma marca de Saint Olav. Harald Hardråde usou a bandeira do corvo . Esta bandeira foi hasteada por vários chefes vikings e outros governantes escandinavos durante os séculos 9, 10 e 11 DC. Inge usou um leão vermelho em ouro. Sverreusou uma águia em ouro e vermelho. A primeira bandeira conhecida que poderia ser descrita como uma bandeira nacional da Noruega é aquela usada hoje como o Padrão Real . Eirik Magnusson usou uma bandeira descrita como um leão dourado com machado e coroa em vermelho de 1280 e, desde então, era regularmente a bandeira do rei da Noruega e, portanto, também da Noruega.

A bandeira é baseada no brasão e era originalmente apenas uma bandeira para o governante da Noruega (como é hoje). Posteriormente, foi também utilizado em navios e fortalezas até ser gradualmente extinto durante os séculos XVII e XVIII. Sua primeira representação certa está no selo da duquesa Ingebjørg em 1318. Por volta de 1500, tornou-se costume os navios arvorarem a bandeira de seu país de origem para identificar sua nacionalidade. Uma bandeira vermelha com o leão dourado e a alabarda de prata é retratada como a bandeira da Noruega em um livro de bandeiras holandês de 1669 a 1670. [2] Pelo menos até 1698, a bandeira do leão foi hasteada na Fortaleza de Akershus . O "leão norueguês" foi colocado com as cores de todos os regimentos noruegueses em 1641. Em 1748, um decreto declarava que o Dannebrogdeve ser a única bandeira comercial legal.

Por volta do século 16 até 1814, a Noruega usou a mesma bandeira da Dinamarca, por estar em união com aquele país . Em 1814, a Noruega independente adotou a bandeira dinamarquesa com o leão norueguês no cantão ou a praça superior na talha. Esta bandeira foi em uso como estado e bandeira da guerra até 1815 e como bandeira comerciante até 1821. Mais tarde, em 1814, a Noruega estava unida com a Suécia , e em 07 de março de 1815 uma bandeira de guerra comum para ambos os estados foi introduzida por ordem real no conselho, o sueco bandeira com uma cruz branca sobre um fundo vermelho no cantão quadrado. O mesmo desenho em uma bandeira retangular foi introduzido como uma bandeira comercial alternativa em 1818, para uso em águas distantes, ou seja, ao sul do Cabo Finisterra, na Espanha.[3]

A atual bandeira da Noruega foi desenhada em 1821 por Fredrik Meltzer , um membro do parlamento ( Storting ). Foi adotado por ambas as câmaras do Storting em 11 e 16 de maio, respectivamente. No entanto, o rei se recusou a assinar a lei da bandeira, mas aprovou o projeto para uso civil por ordem real no conselho em 13 de julho de 1821. A constituição de 1814 afirmava explicitamente que a bandeira de guerra deveria ser uma bandeira da união, daí a bandeira comum ( Sueco com um cantão significando a Noruega) foi usado pelos exércitos e marinhas de ambos os estados até 1844.

Até 1838, a bandeira norueguesa era usada apenas nas águas do norte, ou seja, nas águas ao norte do Cabo Finisterra , visto que a Noruega não tinha tratado com os piratas berberes do norte da África e tinha que hastear a bandeira sueca ou da união para proteção. Em 1844, uma marca sindical combinando as cores norueguesas e suecas foi colocada no içamento das bandeiras de ambos os países. O emblema foi chamado de forma jocosa ou depreciativa de Sildesalaten("a salada de arenque") pela confusão de cores e pela semelhança com um prato popular nas mesas de café da manhã dos dois países. Inicialmente, a bandeira da união era popular na Noruega, uma vez que denotava claramente o status de igualdade dos dois estados unidos. À medida que a união com a Suécia se tornou menos popular, o parlamento norueguês aboliu a marca da união das bandeiras nacional (mercantil) e estadual em 1898. Embora a lei não tenha sido aprovada pelo rei, ela entrou em vigor por ter sido aprovada por três Stortings consecutivos . A bandeira "pura" foi hasteada pela primeira vez em 1899, mas a marca da união teve que ser mantida na bandeira de guerra. Após a dissolução da união, foi retirado da bandeira da Marinha também em 9 de junho de 1905. A Suécia manteve-o em todas as bandeiras até 1 de novembro de 1905.

Leis relativas a bandeira [ editar ]

A lei da bandeira norueguesa de 1898 [4] especifica a aparência das bandeiras mercantes e estaduais e seu uso por navios mercantes, alfândega e navios postais. Os regulamentos da bandeira de 1927 [5] descrevem ainda o uso da bandeira do estado em propriedades do estado e nos feriados nacionais.

Os regulamentos da bandeira também descrevem a hora do dia em que a bandeira deve ser içada e baixada. De março a outubro a bandeira deve ser hasteada a partir das 08h00. De novembro a fevereiro deve ser içado a partir das 09h00. A bandeira é baixada ao pôr -do- sol , embora o mais tardar às 21h00, mesmo que o pôr-do-sol seja posterior. Nos condados do norte de Nordland e Troms, a bandeira é hasteada entre as 10h00 e as 15h00, de novembro a fevereiro. Estas regras não se aplicam ao uso privado da bandeira, mas geralmente são observadas por todos os cidadãos.

Existem também regras escritas para o correto dobramento da bandeira, para não deixá-la tocar o solo, e adicionalmente a regra não escrita de que não deve ser usada no corpo abaixo da cintura.

Since 1933, only the Norwegian, the Sámi or the local official flags were allowed to fly on top of municipality buildings. Since 2014, the municipalities could hoist a different flag if an event in the building was related to it. In 2021, related to the group gathering restrictions with Covid-19, the government proposed to adapt the legislation so that municipalities don't need to host an event for hoisting a flag[6]. In 2020, a public consultation was launched, which received more than 3,000 answers. Municipalities were in favor of more flexibility (62%), while more than 2,000 individuals asked for the law to remain the same[7].

Legal definition[edit]


National and merchant flag

State and war flag

The proportions of the national flag are 22:16 (width to length), its colour elements having widths of 6:1:2:1:12 and lengths of 6:1:2:1:6. The proportions of the state flag are 27:16, or 6:1:2:1:6:11 horizontally and 6:1:2:1:6 vertically.

The law regarding the Norwegian flag by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs defines the colours as deep red and dark blue (“høirødt” og “mørkeblåt”) and white, with no reference to a specific colour system.[8]

Flag producers normally use the red colour 200 and blue colour 281 from the Pantone colour matching system[9] (note that no suffixes are specified in these PMS values, since the coated C version is normally assumed). These colours for the Norwegian flag were also defined on page 79 of the publication Flags and anthems manual, London 2012, and were used for the summer Olympic games in London 2012.[10] Oslo Orlogsforening also specifies Pantone 200 and 281.[11] The flag manufacturer Langkilde & Søn even refers to Pantone 200 as «Norwegian Red» and Pantone 281 as «Norwegian Blue».[12] As of 2021, the Nordic Council also specifies Pantone 200 and 281.[13]

Other sources have specified different colours for the red and the blue in relation to the Pantone colour matching system (PMS). In a document on the Norwegian government's web pages, the red colour is defined as “Pantone 032 U” and the blue as “Pantone 281 U”.[14] However, Norwegian flag producers consider this red colour to be incorrect, and have complained that the Norwegian state propagates what they perceive as misinformation. For example, it has been argued that pantone suffixes (such as C and U) only are relevant for print on paper, and thus should not be used to specify flag colours.[15] Norwegian authorities have since clarified that the colours only were an internal recommendation intended specifically for silkscreen printing, and not a legal definition, and has since withdrawn the recommendation.[15] The Nordic Flag Society currently defines the red colour as PMS 186 and the blue as PMS 287.[16] The Nordic Council previously attributed their colours to this source but defined red colour as “Pantone 186 C” (note the C postfix) while the blue was identical to the source (“Pantone 287”).[17] However, in 2010 the same website defined the blue colour as “Pantone 301”.[18]

On 25 April 2018 the Norwegian foreign minister recommended that Norwegian flag manufacturers take initiative to form a technical standard describing a guidance on which colours to use in the flag of Norway,[19] similar to what has been done in Denmark.[20] It was stressed that it is the colour of the finished product that matters, and that this may result in the guide describing different colour codes for fabric, paper and web use.

Due to the vastly different ways colors are reproduced on physical flags versus on digital displays (using web colors), there is naturally no precise RGB equivalent to the Pantone colours. However, a good approximation can be achieved by following the official translation to web colors in the Pantone Formula Guide. With the de facto standard used by Norwegian flag producers being PMS 200 and 281, the corresponding web colors using the official Pantone Matching System is #BA0C2F for PMS 200 (deep red)[21] and #00205B blå for PMS 281 (dark blue).[22]


Colors scheme
BlueRedWhite
Pantone281 C200 CWhite
RAL502630209016
CMYK100-65-0-640-94-75-270-0-0-0
HEX#00205B#BA0C2F#FFFFFF
RGB0-32-91186-12-47255-255-255

Traditions regarding the flag[edit]

Music when raising (hoisting) or lowering the flag[edit]

When raising the Norwegian flag on festive or ceremonial occasions, the hoisting will often be accompanied by a bugle call, fanfare, or the national anthem (Ja, vi elsker). For civilian use on ceremonial occasions, there are no written rules concerning this. The Norwegian armed forces have a unified bugle call for hoisting and lowering the flag, known as "flaggappell" (Attention to the flag) (cf. Bugle calls of the Norwegian Army).

Code of conduct during flag hoisting and lowering[edit]

According to Norwegian Law as well as common usage, flags of other sovereign states are to be treated with the same respect as the Norwegian flag.

For civilians and non-uniformed government employees, there are no formal hand gestures (e.g. the U.S. hand-over-the-heart gesture {cf. United States Flag Code}) that must be performed. But it is commonly agreed that during the hoisting or lowering of the flag, civilians should conduct themselves in a respectful manner by facing the flag and standing still, straight, and quiet. Males should be bareheaded (unless there are religious, medical, or climatic reasons for covering the head).

All uniformed government personnel (e.g.: municipal traffic wardens, policemen, customs official, prison wardens, maritime pilots, armed forces personnel) follow the Norwegian Armed Forces regulation during flag hoisting or lowering. The regulations stipulate that when seeing the flag being hoisted or lowered, or hearing the bugle call, all activity should if possible be stopped, and personnel should execute the foot drill manoeuvre of "Halt and front face" (stopping up and turning one's body to face the flagpole).

If a person is not in formation and is wearing a uniform hat, cap or beret, he or she must render a salute. A person in formation or not wearing a prescribed uniform hat, should stand at attention for the duration of the bugle signal, or if in sight of the hoisting or lowering, until the flag is either at the top of the pole, at half mast, or until two thirds of the flag is in the hands of the flag party.

Rolling up the flag[edit]

Unlike the Anglo-American traditions of folding a flag (the triangular shape of the U.S. flag or the square shape of the UK's Union Flag), the Norwegian tradition is to roll the flag into a cylindrical shape and tie it up after lowering it.

The first step of this procedure is to fold the flag lengthwise so that its two long sides meet. Each half will then be folded 180 degrees, concealing the longitudinal white and blue stripes. Finally the folded full length flag, its width 14 of the hoist, will be rolled up into a red cylinder.

If the flag is fitted with a line, this is wrapped around the flag and tied with a simple slip knot. The use of a simple slip knot allows one person alone to hoist the flag unaided.

Occupation flag[edit]

When on international missions, Norwegian armed forces may keep a flag (national or merchant flag) raised during the night and illuminated by a spotlight, to affirm their presence and to boost morale.

This tradition stems from World War II, when a small-sized flag was hoisted (usually above the CO quarters) in the numerous camps of Norwegian forces in the UK, USA, Sweden, and Canada, to symbolize that fight against the enemy would go on day and night until final victory.

Dishonoured flag[edit]

Military regulations stipulate that a Norwegian flag shall never touch the ground, since this is disrespectful towards the flag and may signify surrender.

Symbolism[edit]

Fredrik Meltzer submitted his proposal just in time to be exhibited in parliament on 4 May 1821 together with a large number of other proposals. It was approved by both chambers during the following two weeks. Meltzer himself provided no written explanation for his choice of design and colours. However, his intentions may be inferred from an earlier letter of 30 April with his comments regarding the proposal from the flag committee. That design was divided quarterly red and white. Meltzer objected to the colours because they were too similar to those of the Danish flag. He added that it would be equally unseemly to choose the colours of any of "those states with which we have been or are connected with". Instead, he recommended a tricolour of red, white and blue, "three colours that now denote freedom, such as we have seen in the French flag of freedom, and still see in that of the Dutch and Americans, and in the Union of the Englishmen".[23]

His eventual choice a few days later of a Nordic cross was clearly based on the tradition established by the other Nordic countries, Denmark and Sweden. This cross represents Christianity.[24][25] The red and blue colours also explicitly referred to the same two countries, former and present union partners. It was clearly understood by all who took part in the flag discussions locally, in the press or in parliament what those colours denoted. A predominantly red flag had many adherents among those who were attached to the union with Denmark or to its flag, which for centuries had also been that of Norway. Others, who saw Denmark as an oppressor, favoured the blue colour associated with the new Swedish dynasty which was seen as more receptive of Norwegian ambitions of autonomy.[26] Consequently, most of the other flag proposals on the agenda had either red or blue as the predominant colour, depending on the political preferences of the proposers.[27]

Norwegian flag days[edit]

  • 1 January - New Year's Day
  • 21 January - Princess Ingrid Alexandra's birthday
  • 6 February - The Sami National Day. (An official flag day both for the Sami people and for the whole of Norway.)
  • 21 February - King Harald V's birthday
  • 16 March - The Kven National Day. (An official flag day for the Kven people.)[28]
  • Easter Sunday
  • 1 May - Labour Day
  • 8 May - Liberation Day 1945
  • 17 May - Constitution Day 1814 (National Day)
  • Whitsunday
  • 7 June - Union Dissolution Day 1905
  • 4 July - Queen Sonja's birthday
  • 20 July - Crown Prince Haakon Magnus's birthday
  • 29 July - Olsok. (Olav's Mass. In memory of King Olav Haraldsson (the Holy), who died in the battle of Stiklestad 29 July 1030.)
  • 19 August - Crown Princess Mette-Marit's birthday
  • Second Monday of September every 4 years - General election
  • 25 December - Christmas Day[29]

Chronology[edit]

*= Contested
UsageTypeDesign(s)Note(s)Dates in useDuration
War*
Naval*
BannerReconstruction of the first recorded banner (one of several), the Raven banner, flown by chieftains and rulers in and from Scandinavia.8th – 10th century
Royal
National
Naval
Heraldic
Banner
Royal Standard of Norway: As a banner of arms, this has been the historical flag of the Old Kingdom of Norway and its kings. Used as the coat of arms from at least 1318, and also as flag-format on ships and fortresses.[30] This flag with the coat of arms of Norway is still in use today by the King of Norway.13th century – c. 1536
c. 1536 – 1748
1905 – present
Union*Nordic crossProbable flag of the Kalmar Union.c. 1397c. 1523
Union
Naval
Nordic crossFlag of Denmark–Norway. From 1748 the only approved merchant flag.c. 1536 – 1748
1748 – 1814
National
Naval
Nordic cross
Canton
Flag of Norway (1814–1821). On ships only north of Cape Finisterre, Spain. On longer distances the two following flags were used.1814 – 1821
NavalNordic crossFlag used by Norwegian ships south of Cape Finisterre 1815–1818, optional until 1821.1815 – 1821
NavalNordic cross
Canton
Flag used by Norwegian ships south of Cape Finisterre, Spain 1818–1844. From 1821 it was also used by Swedish ships there.1818 – 1844
National
Naval
Nordic crossFlag of Norway (1821–1844). On ships only north of Cape Finisterre, Spain, until 1838.1821 – 1844
National
Union
Naval
Nordic cross
Canton
Flag of Norway (1844–1899)1844 – 1899
National
Naval
Nordic crossFlag of Norway (1899–present)1899 – 1940
1940 – 1945
1945 – present

See also[edit]

  • Coat of arms of Norway
  • Flags of Norwegian subdivisions
  • List of flags of Norway
  • National anthem of Norway
  • Norway in red, white and blue
  • Nordic Cross flag
  • Royal Standard of Norway
  • Sami flag
  • Union mark of Norway and Sweden

References[edit]

  1. ^ Andrew Evans (2008). Iceland. Bradt. ISBN 9781841622156. Retrieved 31 December 2007. Legend states that a red cloth with the white cross simply fell from the sky in the middle of the 13th-century Battle of Valdemar, after which the Danes were victorious. As a badge of divine right, Denmark flew its cross in the other Scandinavian countries it ruled and as each nation gained independence, they incorporated the Christian symbol.
  2. ^ Munksgaard, Jan Henrik (2012): "Flagget − Et nasjonal symbol blir til". Årbok Vest-Agder-museet, Kristiansand, p.15
  3. ^ Munksgaard, Jan Henrik (2012): "Flagget − Et nasjonal symbol blir til". Årbok Vest-Agder-museet, Kristiansand, pp. 76-80
  4. ^ "LOV 1898-12-10 nr 01: Lov om Norges Flag". Lovdata.no. Retrieved 14 January 2010.
  5. ^ "FOR 1927-10-21 nr 9733: Forskrift angående bruk av statsflagget og handelsflagget". Lovdata.no. Retrieved 14 January 2010.
  6. ^ moderniseringsdepartementet, Kommunal-og (12 March 2021). "Prop. 105 L (2020–2021)". Regjeringen.no (in Norwegian). Retrieved 7 May 2021.
  7. ^ "Norwegians Want Their Own Flag On Top Of Town Halls". Newsndip. 7 May 2021. Retrieved 7 May 2021.
  8. ^ "Lov om Norges Flag [flaggloven] - Lovdata". lovdata.no.
  9. ^ "UD og norske flaggprodusenter krangler om dette er det riktige norske flagget".
  10. ^ d'organisation, Jeux olympiques d'été Comité; d'organisation, Jeux olympiques d'été Comité (12 December 2017). "Flags and anthems manual London 2012 : SPP final version / London Organising Committee of the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games". LOCOG. London.
  11. ^ "Flagget vårt". Oslo Orlogsforening. 30 April 2012. Archived from the original on 26 September 2019. Retrieved 23 December 2020.
  12. ^ Norske flaggregler - Langkilde & Søn
  13. ^ The Norwegian flag | Nordic cooperation
  14. ^ Regjeringen.no https://www.regjeringen.no/no/dokumentarkiv/stoltenberg-ii/ud/Lover-og-regler/Reglement/2006/instruks_for_utenrikstjenesten/13/id260737/
  15. ^ a b Fargene i det Norske flagget | Flaggfabrikken a.s
  16. ^ "Norway" (PDF). Nordic Flag Society. September 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 November 2020. Retrieved 23 December 2020.
  17. ^ "The Norwegian flag". The Nordic Council. Archived from the original on 7 December 2019. Retrieved 24 December 2020.
  18. ^ "Norges flag". The Nordic Council. Archived from the original on 7 November 2010. Retrieved 24 December 2020.
  19. ^ Svar på spørsmål om fargen på det norske flagget - regjeringen.no
  20. ^ Dansk Standard DS 359:2005
  21. ^ PANTONE® 200 C - Find a Pantone Color | Quick Online Color Tool | Pantone
  22. ^ PANTONE® 281 C - Find a Pantone Color | Quick Online Color Tool | Pantone
  23. ^ Stortingsarkivet: Meltzer's letter of 30 April, "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 April 2008. Retrieved 13 February 2008.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  24. ^ Jeroen Temperman (2010). State Religion Relationships and Human Rights Law. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. ISBN 978-9004181489. Retrieved 31 December 2007. Many predominantly Christian states show a cross, symbolising Christianity, on their national flag. Scandinavian crosses or Nordic crosses on the flags of the Nordic countries–Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden–also represent Christianity.
  25. ^ Carol A. Foley (1996). The Australian Flag: Colonial Relic or Contemporary Icon. William Gaunt & Sons. ISBN 9781862871885. Retrieved 31 December 2007. The Christian cross, for instance, is one of the oldest and most widely used symbols in the world, and many European countries, such as the United Kingdom, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Iceland, Greece and Switzerland, adopted and currently retain the Christian cross on their national flags.
  26. ^ Stortingsarkivet: printed circular letter from Kielland, 5 September 1820, "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 April 2008. Retrieved 13 February 2008.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  27. ^ Munksgaard, Jan Henrik: "Et nytt flagg for Norge 1814-1821", In: Nordisk flaggkontakt, Vol. 40, 2005, pp.19-30.
  28. ^ – Svært gledelig at kvenflagget heises i Tromsø
  29. ^ https://lovdata.no/forskrift/1927-10-21-9733/§4
  30. ^ "Norges flagg". 27 July 2016 – via Store norske leksikon.

External links[edit]

  • Norway at Flags of the World
  • Norwegian defense web page about the flag's history
  • University of Bergen chronology
  • National Archive flag history With a picture of the seal of duchess Ingebjørg.
  • A commercial web site with a flag chronology
  • Stortinget flag history page
  • FOTW info on the Kalmar Union flag
  • http://www.flagscorner.com/norway-flag/